Dynamic Rank(s): linking longitudinal rank dynamics and multi-layer consensus ranking in macaques
Rosemary Blersch1, 2, Brenda McCowan1,2, Jessica Vandeleest1,2, Márton Pósfai3, Niklas Braun4, Alexander Pritchard1,2, Brianne Beisner5. 1Department of Population Health & Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States; 2Neuroscience and Behavior Unit, California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA, United States; 3Dept. of Network and Data Science, Central European University, Budapest, , Hungary; 4Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA, United States; 5Emory National Primate Research Center, Suwanee, GA, United States

Dominance hierarchies are a fundamentally dynamic component of many animal social groups, and crucial in fostering group stability. Until recently, dominance rank and social behaviors have often been considered separately however, dominance rank is not independent of other behavioral processes. We anticipate that the properties of both agonistic and affiliative networks are associated with active rank dynamics. We quantified longitudinal hierarchy dynamics and multiplex centrality over four years in a large outdoor-housed rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) group to assess whether rank dynamics are linked to uni/multiplex network centrality across four interaction layers (aggression, status signaling, grooming and huddling). Despite rhesus macaques being generally thought to have relatively stable hierarchies with clear matrilineal structure, we found significant rank reversals in males and females even under conditions expected to mitigate rank change. Additionally, we found temporal variation in uni/multiplex centrality potentially linked to both longitudinal hierarchy dynamics and dominance certainty. These results point to complex behavioral processes that underpin rank change.