ABS 2022
Phenotypic plasticity and carryover effects: Across life-stage tradeoffs in predation and parasitism
Eric M Trotman, Carl N Keiser . University of Florida, Gainesville , Fl, United States

Inducible antipredator defenses have been described in many taxa. Behavioral and morphological phenotypes developed in one stage provide defense against enemies at that stage but may leave individuals disadvantaged in subsequent life stages. Little is known about the degree to which predator-parasitism tradeoffs extend across life stages. Animals that undergo metamorphosis provide a unique opportunity to explore these “carryover tradeoffs”, wherein exposure to stressors early in life may induce tradeoffs in subsequent stages. I synthesized published studies on inducible anti-predator defenses and their carryover effects and propose a novel framework for carryover tradeoffs in predation risk and parasitism. I used amphibians to explore how carryover tradeoffs inform conservation efforts like translocation and ex-situ captive-breeding programs. We found direct evidence for within-life stage tradeoffs between predation and parasitism in many studies, as well as direct evidence for cross-developmental tradeoffs within a single context. However, we only found indirect evidence for carryover tradeoffs in amphibians, highlighting the need for more experimental tests of this hypothesis.