Behaviour 2019
Mitigating Macaque Infant Risk in the Urban Environment
Josephine A. Hubbard1,2, Nadine Ruppert3, Krishna Balasubramaniam2, Brianne Beisner4, Pascal Marty2, Stefano Kaburu5, Brenda McCowan2. 1Animal Behavior Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, United States; 2School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis , Davis, CA, United States; 3School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Perak, Malaysia; 4Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States; 5Biomedical Science & Physiology, University of Wolverhampton , Wolverhampton, West Midlands, United Kingdom

This study investigates how females balance the risks of human interactions under different phases of energetic need. We define these phases as early pregnancy (EP: 6 months pre-birth), late pregnancy (LP: 3 months pre-birth), early lactation (EL: 3 months post-birth) and late lactation (LL: 6 months post-birth). Seven groups of urban rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis) macaques were observed in India and Malaysia from 2016-2018. During this time we collected data on infant births and human-macaque interactions. Due to higher energetic needs during lactation, we expect that females will interact more with humans during lactation to receive human food. Since interactions with humans can also be risky, we expect that females will limit interactions with humans during EL, when infants are vulnerable. We used GLMMs to assess the effect of phase on human-macaque interactions. Using an IT approach, we found that the best model showed that females interacted with humans more often during LP compared to EL (b= 0.32, p = 0.05). These results suggest that females may adjust their behavior based on the risks of exposing their young infants to human interactions.