Behaviour 2019
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The role of competition for mates in speciation and divergence: a systematic review
Alycia Lackey1, Elizabeth Scordato2, Robin Tinghitella3, Jason Keagy4, Robert Heathcote5. 1University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, United States; 2Cal Poly Pomona, Pomona, CA, United States; 3University of Denver, Denver, CO, United States; 4Penn State University, State College, PA, United States; 5University of Bristol, Bristol, , United Kingdom

Using a systematic review, we examine how competition for mates contributes to population divergence and speciation. Studies of the role of sexual selection in divergence and speciation have focused disproportionately on the role of female choice and interactions between female choice and the environment. Yet competition for mates may play a critical role in determining reproductive success and differentiation within and between populations.     Our review determines the relative contribution of competition for mates to population divergence and speciation in the context of other evolutionary forces (e.g., mate choice, environmental differences, mutation order divergence). We compare the strength, direction, and consequences of competition for mates across a range of evolutionary, ecological, and geographic contexts.   This review provides a framework for evaluating (1) when competition for mates is most likely to contribute to divergence and speciation and (2) how competition for mates can shape divergence and speciation, with emphasis on identifying future research aims for systems in which competition for mates is likely important but has been understudied.