Behaviour 2019
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 Can we use anti-predator behavior theory to predict wildlife responses to high-speed vehicles?
Ryan Lunn, Esteban Fernandez-Juricic. Purdue University , West Lafayette , IN, United States

Animals appear to rely on antipredator behavior to avoid collisions with vehicles. We investigated the degree to which three models of escape behavior (the flush early and avoid the rush hypothesis, the looming effect hypothesis, the Bayesian optimal escape model) can generate quantitative predictions about flight initiation distance relative to vehicle approach speed considering three escape rules (spatial margin of safety, temporal margin of safety, speed effect). We used a simulation approach with a parameter space obtained from the literature. The flush early and avoid the rush hypothesis performed best in explaining flight initiation distance from a high speed vehicle only under thetemporal margin of safety. The looming effect hypothesis performed best under certain ranges of the speed effect only. The Bayesian optimal escape did not perform well under any of the escape rules with the exception of species with really high body masses. Overall, no single model was able to make quantitative predictions under the different escape rules. Our findings call for the development of new models to better predict escape behavior to high speed vehicles.