Behaviour 2019
A comparison of acoustic propagation cinditions for booming birds.
David G. Browning. Browning Biotech, Kingston, Rhode Island, United States

An interesting collection of birds have low frequency booming as part of their vocalizations which can propagate a significant distance .All vocalize while on the ground, with several species being flightless. Most are usually in locations where the ground or water sound reflection is good, aiding propagation conditions. Exceptions being the Cassoway's jungle environment but booming will help identification in this noisy environment, and the Kakapo which tends to sit in a bowl shaped depression, however this would enhance the upward sound projection toward potential listeners above in the trees. For the Sage Grouse booming is more a part of the local mating demonstration.