Behaviour 2019
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Pigs' and dogs' human-oriented communicative behaviours in the presence of an out-of-reach reward.
Paula Pérez Fraga1,2, Boglárka Morvai1,2, Linda Gerencsér1,2, Fanni Lehoczki1,2, Attila Andics1,2. 1Department of Ethology, Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE), Budapest,, Budapest, Hungary; 2University (ELTE) MTA-ELTE ‘Lendület’ Neuroethology of Communication Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences – Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE, Budapest,, Budapest, Hungary

 When living in a human family,​ pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus), occupy a similar role as dogs (Canis familiaris). Previous research suggests that pigs persist more than dogs in trying to solve a food-related, manipulative problem on their own and perform less human-oriented behaviours. To investigate whether this species difference reflects a manipulative bias in pigs or a communicative bias in dogs, here we compared the human-oriented behaviours of family pigs and dogs, using out-of-reach food rewards, in three conditions: 1) alone with food reward, 2) with the owner but no food present, 3) with both owner and food reward present (in which the communicative behaviours were expected to increase). Pigs and dogs oriented to the possible food location and alternated their orientation towards that location and the owner similarly when no food was present. The owner’s presence influenced dogs’ but not pigs’ food orientation and orientation-alternation (P< 0.001). Pigs, in contrast, were overall more food-oriented than dogs (P< 0.001). Despite similar socialization backgrounds, species predispositions for communication, are thus determinant for engaging in interactions with humans.