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Conference Abstracts

Behavioral and Neurophysiological Responses of a Parasitoid to Novel Host Signals
Norman Lee1, Aaron Wikle2, Jay Gallagher2, Dale Broder2, Iya Abdulkarim1, Mikayla Carlson1, Fernando A. Ortega1, Robin Tinghitella1
1St. Olaf College, Northfield, Minnesota, USA, 2University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA

Animal signals are often subjected to conflicting selection pressures imposed by intended and unintended receivers, which may shape signal properties over time. In eavesdropping predators and parasitoids that depend on these signals for survival and reproduction, receivers are required to adapt to signal changes. Selection imposed by an acoustically eavesdropping fly, Ormia ochracea, has facilitated the evolution of novel songs in Hawaiian populations of the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. We hypothesize that Hawaiian flies have evolved to be more responsive to novel cricket songs than compared to flies from their ancestral range. We measured phonotactic behavioral response thresholds from Hawaiian and Floridian O. ochracea  to an array of natural stimuli that varied in several spectral characteristics. Compared to ancestral flies, Hawaiian flies exhibited significantly lower behavioral response thresholds to certain novel T. oceanicus songs. However, Hawaiian O. ochracea did not prefer particular spectral characteristics. Ongoing neurophysiology experiments will determine whether these differences between populations are due to evolved preferences or hearing.
Session: Feeling under the weather: Parasites and Disease
Which Chimpanzees Form Parties Together in Savanna Woodland?
Midori Yoshikawa1, Hideshi Ogawa2
1National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki, Japan, 2Chukyo University, Toyota-shi, Aichi, Japan

Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) unit-groups split into subgroups called parties. We studied which chimpanzees form parties together at Ugalla in savanna woodland, Tanzania. This dry open habitat is the easternmost part of the chimpanzee distribution. We recorded sex and age classes in parties. We classified the parties into 7 types based on composition and analyzed the observation frequency of each. We observed lone males 8 times and lone females 1 time. Consort parties of 1 male and 1 female were recorded 4 times. We found mixed parties in 53.8% of observations, with more adult females than adult males. Of parties with infants, 85% were mixed parties, and we found mother-infant parties only 3 times. Nursing females with infants joined mixed parties more frequently than males, presumably to reduce predation risk. No all-male party was recorded. Mixed parties with estrus females tended to be larger than those without estrus females (5.7 vs. 4.0 individuals). Chimpanzees in savanna woodland live at low densities in a large home range. Thus, this may reduce the need for males to patrol their territory, but they would also need to avoid being separated from estrous females.
Session: Virtual Posters
No time like the present: uncertainty about old information results in differential predator memory
Gabrielle H. Achtymichuk1, Adam L. Crane2, Maud C.O. Ferrari1
1Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, 2University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

As information ages, it may become less accurate, resulting in increased uncertainty for decision makers. Chemical alarm cues are a source of public information about a nearby predator attack, and these cues can become spatially inaccurate through time. They can also degrade quickly under natural conditions, and cue receivers are sensitive to such degradation. While numerous studies have documented predator-recognition learning from fresh alarm cues, no studies have explored learning from aged alarm cues and whether the uncertainty associated with this older information contributes to shortening the retention of learned responses (i.e., the 'memory window'). Here, we found that wood frog tadpoles, Lithobates sylvaticus, learned to recognize a novel odour as a predator when paired with alarm cues aged under natural conditions for up to one hour. However, only tadpoles conditioned with fresh alarm cues were found to retain this learned response when tested 9 days after conditioning. These results support the hypothesis that the memory window is shortened by the uncertainty associated with older information, preventing the long-term costs of a learned association that was erroneous.
Session: Virtual Talks
Coercion experience enhances coercion evasion abilities in female swordtails
Elena Adams, Molly Cummings
University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA

Coercive mating tactics have been observed in many different species and are indicative of intense conflict between the sexes— when males and females differ in their reproductive goals and ideal mating rates. One such species is the poeciliid fish Xiphophorus nigrensis, which has three male genotypes with different reproductive strategies. Large males court females, intermediate sized males court and coerce, and small males only coerce females— representing the highest level of conflict. Male coercion in poeciliid species has been shown to be costly to female foraging and causes physical damage. In this study, we tested X. nigrensis females that were raised with coercion-only, courtship-only or both male tactics in a coercion evasion assay. Females raised with large males were observed within close proximity to a small coercive male more frequently than females raised in a coercion-only environment. Furthermore, latency to be within 10 cm of the small coercive male was longest in the females raised in coercion-only environments. These data reveal that females acquire countermeasures to sexual conflict through learning rather than genetics.
Session: Virtual Talks
Haemosporidian parasites and host life-history traits influence plumage coloration in tanagers
Victor Aguiar de Souza Penha1, Fabricius Maia Chaves Bicalho Domingos2, Alan Fecchio3, Jeffrey Bell4, Jason Weckstein5, Robert Ricklefs6, Erika Martins Braga7, Patrícia de Abreu Moreira8, Leticia Soares9, Steven Latta10, Graziela Tolesano-Pascoli11, Renata Duarte Alquezar12, Kleber Del-Claro13, Lilian Tonelli Manica2
1Graduate Program in Ecology and Conservation, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, 2Zoology Department, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, 3Graduate Program in Ecology and Biodiversity Conservation, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil, 4Department of Biology, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota, USA, 5Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University and Department of Biodiversity, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, 6Department of Biology, University of Missouri-Saint Louis, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA, 7Department of Parasitology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 8Department of Biodiversity, Evolution and Environment, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 9Department of Biology, Western Ontario University, London, Ontario, Canada, 10Conservation and Field Research, National Aviary, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 11Department of Zoology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil, 12Animal Behavior Laboratory, Graduate Program in Ecology, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil, 13Behavioral Ecology and Interactions Laboratory, Graduate Program in Ecology and Conservation of Natural Resources, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil

Sexual selection, host-life history traits and parasitism may influence plumage coloration in birds. We studied the relationships between dichromatism, haemosporidioses, reproduction and host life-history traits in tanagers. We screened4234 individuals from 53 tanager species for the presence of haemosporidioses. We used publicly available data (plumage coloration, song complexity, host phylogeny, and life-history traits) to produce three PGLS with the plumage dichromatism and complexity (males and females) as our response variables. We found that more dichromatic species hadmore haemosporidian parasite lineages and a higher parasite prevalence. Results suggest that individuals able to invest in feather pigmentation without impacting other physiological functions are more likely chosen by the selecting mate, increasing sexual dichromatism. Also, dichromatic species were smaller, possibly due to shorter pair bonds during breeding periods, and presented longer male songs, suggesting that female choice favor males with more complex song and plumage. Results show that in such a diverse group, sexual selection produced higher trait variability in species under higher infection risk.
Session: Virtual Talks
Amazon Mollies Respond to Conflicting Information by Weighing Previous Experience More Heavily
Jonathan Aguiñaga, Candice Mitchell, Kate Laskowski
University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA

Animals live in an uncertain world. Individuals can reduce their uncertainty about the best behavioral decision by collecting information directly, or by monitoring the actions of others. But how do animals resolve conflict when private and social information do not agree? Here, we compared how Amazon mollies (Poecilia formosa) respond to social information that conflicts with its private experiences. Fish were first trained with private and social information that coincided to indicate 'safe' or 'risky' conditions. For the 'safe' treatment, a novel chemical cue (private information) was paired with social information of a foraging shoal, while the 'risky' treatment paired the private information with a molly alarm cue and social information of a freezing shoal. After training, the social and private information were presented in conflict: fish trained with safe private information now had social information that indicated risk and vice versa. Somewhat surprisingly, we found that fish did not adjust their behavior in response to conflicting social information. Instead, fish strongly habituated to the behavioral assay and seemed to disregard social information entirely.
Session: Rack your brain: Behavioral Plasticity & Cognition
Exploring tuberculosis infection in free-ranging long-tailed macaques using social network analysis
Nalina Aiempichitkijkarn, Brenda McCowan
University of California, Davis, Davis, California, USA

Group living is a significant evolutionary driver for many primate species. However, socializing can increase exposure to infectious agents including tuberculosis (TB), a disease that causes high mortality in many primates. Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) live in complex social groups and are often used as a model species in the study of infectious diseases. My project uses analytical network methodologies to investigate how demographic, ecological, and social factors influence TB exposure within macaques. Behavioral observations and non-invasive biological samples were collected from 98 wild long-tailed macaques in Wat Khao Tamon, Thailand, between Aug 2021 and Feb 2022. IS6110 PCR assay showed that 8 out of 98 monkeys tested positive for active TB, with many infected monkeys residing in the periphery of the grooming network. Individuals with higher network connectivity may benefit from the stress-relieving effects of allogrooming, decreasing susceptibility to TB infection despite an increase to exposure frequency. This study demonstrates the potential health benefits of increased group interactions as a mitigating factor against TB infection in macaques.
Session: For the love of others: Social evolution and behavior
Spider, sex, magik: elegant experiments for testing sexual selection hypotheses in the Neotropics
Anita Aisenberg
Departamento de Ecología y Biología Evolutiva, Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable, Montevideo, Montevideo, Uruguay

During the last decades studies on spider behavior have flourished in Latin America. Diversity and abundance of spiders is particularly notorious in the Neotropics, where the possibility of fusing experiments under natural scenarios with elegant manipulations at the laboratory is feasible. Arachnologists have spun resistant and enduring collaborative webs, frequently among researchers from diverse disciplines, promoting a characteristic multidisciplinary imprint in evolutionary biology studies. In particular, studies enlightening female active participation in controlling the results of reproduction are emblematic. During the talk and after a brief historical introduction I will share representative examples of studies aimed to test sexual selection hypotheses in spiders from Costa Rica rainforests and highlight challenging areas for future research.       
Session: Detailed Observations of Behavior for Generating Questions and Answering Them – A tribute to William Eberhard and Mary Jane West-Eberhard.
A review on stereotype and abnormal behavior of long-tailed macaque
Rosyid R. Al Hakim 1, Erie K. Nasution 2, Siti Rukayah2
1IPB University , Bogor , West Java, Indonesia, 2Universitas Jenderal Soedirman , Purwokerto , Central Java, Indonesia

The stereotypical and abnormal behavior exhibited by long-tailed macaques has attracted the attention of behavioral researchers. They generally express stereotyped and abnormal behavior due to many factors. Although generally found in captivity or the lab environment, it is also possible to occur in the natural environment. This study aims to review several scientific articles on stereotypical and abnormal behavior in Macaca fascicularis, given the limited focus on this species.
Session: Virtual Talks
Exploring Positive Feedback in the Waggle Dance and its Effect on Collective Behavior of Honeybees
Showmik Alam, Cahit Ozturk, Zachary Shaffer, Stephen Pratt
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

Social insects collectively exploit food sources by recruiting nestmates, creating positive feedback that steers foraging effort to the best locations. The nature of this positive feedback varies among species, with implications for collective foraging. The mass recruitment trails of many ants are nonlinear, meaning that small increases in recruitment effort yield disproportionately large increases in recruitment success. The waggle dance of honeybees, in contrast, is believed to be linear, meaning that success increases proportionately to effort. However, the implications of this presumed linearity have never been tested. We aimed to do so by testing the prediction that linear recruiters will equally exploit two identical food sources, in contrast to nonlinear recruiters, who randomly choose only one of them. Bee colonies were isolated in flight cages and presented with two identical feeders. Initial results from 14 trials are consistent with linearity, with many cases of equal exploitation of the feeders. Second stage trials explore flexibility, another facet of linearity that is defined by reallocation of foraging distribution when unequal feeders are swapped in position.
Session: Group chat: Communication and Social Behavior
Parasite-induced variation of individual and group behaviour in guppies
Angela Albi1, Jacob Davidson2, Jessica Stephenson3, Sandra Binning4, Iain Couzin5
1Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior, Konstanz, Outside US/Canada, Germany, 2Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior, Konstanz, Outside US/Canada, Germany, 3University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA, 4Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada, 5Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior, Konstanz, Outside US/Canada, Germany

In the ecology of fish, parasites often induce multidimensional changes by altering morphology, physiology and movement abilities. However the details of how parasites affect host behavioral phenotypes are not fully understood. With this study, we look at how the ectoparasite Gyrodactylus affects both individual and social behaviour of guppies. We find that parasites do not induce unidirectional changes on the host's physiology or kinematics. However, a minority of the infected fish reach higher critical swimming speeds and increase pectoral fin use at low flow speeds. When in social contexts, infected guppies spend more time in isolation, increase nearest-neighbor distance and swim at the periphery of big groups. Moreover, after a group fission, parasitized fish are more likely to join smaller groups or to be isolated. These results are partly explained by changes in individual relative swimming speed, but it remains unclear whether uninfected group members also use an active avoidance mechanism. Overall, we show how physiological and behavioural measures can be used in the context of sickness behaviour research to better understand the role of disease for group living organisms.
Session: You Are (Not) What You Eat: Host-Parasite Interactions
Modulation of Vocal Amplitude Across Social Contexts in House Wrens
Alexander Allison, Jeffrey Podos
Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA

Communication signals are often comprised of multiple traits, and a major task in the study of signals is to determine the functional significance of such traits. In house wrens (Troglodytes aedon), prior studies, including those by Cramer, have shown that neither trill consistency nor frequency modulation parameters predict male quality. Here, we explore the potential functional role of vocal amplitude in this species, as it varies both seasonally and when birds are provoked through playback. Our main finding is that amplitude varied significantly for a majority of birds seasonally, and for a slight minority of birds after playback, though not in consistent directions for either dataset. This suggests that amplitude modulations may be context-specific for each male. Unexpectedly, singers were found to converge on a maximum average amplitude of ~90 dB even when provoked through playback, suggesting that the production of high-amplitude song may be mechanically constrained. The hypothesis that house wrens sing near their amplitude limits could be tested in noisy environments, where birds often increase vocal amplitudes as an adaptive response to anthropogenic disturbance.
Session: All's Fair in Love and War: Sexual selection and Sexual Conflict
Sick and Flying Solo: Impacts of single-parenthood on trade-off dynamics in a socially monogamous songbird.
Mattina M. Alonge1, Devon Comito1, Kathryn Wilsterman2, Jocelyn Sumi1, Taylor Schobel3, Dominic T. Daniels4, George E. Bentley1
1University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA, 2Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA, 3Sierra Streams Institute, Nevada City, CA, USA, 4University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

Organisms are challenged with balancing time/energy among competing processes. In birds, activation of the acute phase response is accompanied by predictable "sickness behavior". Predictions regarding life history trade-offs often fail to account for ways energetic demands change throughout a season or shift with social environment. Here, we exploit discrete reproductive stages of socially monogamous zebra finches to directly compare prioritization of self-maintenance vs reproduction in females using immune challenge (LPS) and/or mate removal. LPS-treated females reduced activity during both stages, and mate removal abolished this LPS-effect only during provisioning with single parents showing consistently low activity overall. Parental investment (combined index of care) decreased with LPS only during provisioning with no behavioral trade-off during incubation. Results highlight the importance of selecting output measures matched to specific context when exploring trade-offs, and variation within life history stage. Further, mate removal reveals that females don't abandon reproductive investment when lacking support even at the expense of self-maintenance under an immune challenge
Session: Bringing Up Baby: Parental Behavior
Adoption of infants in bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) in Southern India
Ashvita Anand1, Nagarathna Balakrishna2,3, Mewa Singh3,4, Lynne A. Isbell5, Sindhuja Sirigeri2, Malgorzata E. Arlet2
1Faculty of Biology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland, 2Institute of Human Biology and Evolution, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland, 3Zoo Outreach Organization, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, 4Department of Psychology, University of Mysore, Mysore, Karnataka, India, 5Department of Anthropology and Animal Behavior Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Davis, California, Poland

Though uncommon, adoption of orphaned infants has been observed in wild and captive non-human primate species. In two groups of bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata), we observed five instances of infants being cared for after they lost their mothers at a pre-weaning age (< 6 months). Orphaned infants had one or more caregivers involved in holding, carrying, and grooming. We found that infants of high-ranking mothers were groomed for longer durations than other infants, but there was no difference in holding or carrying infants, despite differences in their age. Infant survival was dependent on the number of group members involved in caring for the orphan, but not its sex, age, or mother's rank. While the root force driving adoption in these groups is hard to pinpoint, it is clear that adoption in bonnet macaques is a phenomenon that requires more investigation, so we may better understand what roles kin selection, altruism, and other social factors play in the process of adoption.
Session: Virtual Talks
Determining diet with DNA: Using DNA metabarcoding to characterize plants consumed by wild baboons
Gretchen Andreasen1, Rispah N. Ng'ang'a2, Mauna Dasari3,4, Kinyua Warutere4, Jeanne Altmann4,5,6, Susan C. Alberts4,5,7, Mercy Akinyi5, Elizabeth A. Archie1,4,5
1University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA, 2University of East Anglia, Norwich, England, United Kingdom, 3University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, 4Amboseli Baboon Research Project, Amboseli National Park, Kajiado, Kenya, 5Institute of Primate Research, Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya, 6Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA, 7Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA

Diets affect animal health and fitness, with consequences for ecological communities. Despite its importance, wild animal diets are difficult to accurately measure due to observation and identification limitations. DNA metabarcoding offers a solution. In this pilot study, we use DNA metabarcoding to identify plant species in fecal samples from baboons (Papio cynocephalus) living in the Amboseli ecosystem, Kenya. Leveraging public databases and newly generated barcodes from plants we observed baboons foraging on, we will characterize the diet of 84 individuals living in two neighboring social groups over two different seasons in the same year. We will correlate barcode-derived diets with behavioral foraging observations between social groups and across seasons. We expect to observe seasonal differences in diet, similarities across social groups, and a positive correlation between behavioral and metabarcoding data. These data represent an important contribution to the field of metabarcoding, and a new approach to measuring individual diet composition for the long-term Amboseli project. Our research will lend new insights into baboon foraging ecology.
Session: Poster Session 2
Niche construction of host broods by nest-sharing avian brood parasitic nestlings
Nicholas D. Antonson
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA

Brood parasites that share nests with host nestlings may optimize resource acquisition from foster parents by manipulating brood structure to maximize their own provisioning while minimizing competition. I hypothesized that brown-headed cowbird chicks use a niche construction strategy and reduce larger, more competitive host broods to achieve an optimal number of brood mates required to maximize parasitic survival to fledging. To test these hypotheses, I experimentally altered brood sizes of prothonotary warbler hosts to generate treatments of 1 parasite and 0, 2, or 4 host nestlings at hatching. Parasitic nestling survival was highest with 2 host nestlings, whereas in the larger broods of 4 host nestlings, cowbird nestlings reduced host brood sizes towards this optimum. In turn, there were profound differences in survival strategies and physiology between female and male cowbird nestlings. These results suggest that cowbird nestlings reduce, but do not eliminate, host broods as a niche construction mechanism to improve their own probability of survival, and that females and males differ in their responses to costly competition with host nestlings.
Session: Allee Symposium
Personality dimensions in context of sex, age and dominance rank in wild bonnet macaques
Malgorzata E Arlet1, Olga Sakson-Obada2, Marzena Zakrzewska2, Mewa Singh3, Lynne A Isbell4
1Institute of Human Biology and Evolution, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland, Poznań, Poland, 2Faculty of Psychology and Cognitive Science, Adam Mickiewicz University , Poznań, Poland, 3Faculty of Psychology, University of Mysore, Mysore, India, 4Department of Anthropology and Animal Behavior Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Davis, California, USA

Personality is a fascinating aspect of the psychological life of any individual. The goal of our study was to determine personality structure and explore the association with sex, age, and rank in two groups of free-ranging bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) in Thenmala, India. Animal personality was rated using a 7-point scale for 51 personality attributes. Based on exploratory factor analysis, we chose 5 personality categories: Fearfulness, Sociability, Playfulness, Aggression and Vigilance. We found that the Fearfulness dimension was not related to sex or age, but to dominance rank, as low- and middle-ranking females were more commonly rated for this category than high-ranking females. We also found that higher Sociability was more common among females than males, regardless of age or rank. Playfulness was observed more for subadults than adults, regardless of sex or rank. Aggressiveness was rated more frequently for males than females, and more frequently for high- than middle-ranking females. Moreover, high-ranking females were less fearful than middle- and low-ranking females. Finally, we found that Vigilance was more often rated for subadult males than subadult females, regardless to rank.
Session: Virtual Posters
Ontogeny of Early-Life Vocalizations and the Adult Auditory Brainstem Response in California Mice
April Arquilla1, Keriannne Wilson1, Jamiela Kokash1, Jeffrey Rumschlag2, Khaleel Razak1, Wendy Saltzman1
1The University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA, USA, 2Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA

In most mammalian species, infants emit vocalizations that elicit behavioral responses from their parents. The parents' ability to detect, discriminate, and respond to these calls is often critical for offspring survival. Although most studies of parent-offspring communication in mammals focus on mothers, some species exhibit extensive paternal care, which highlights the need for additional study of fathers' responses to infant cries. Using the biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), we first examined pup calling behavior by analyzing characteristics of their vocalizations from birth until weaning age. We next tested the hypothesis that auditory processing in adult mice changes with parenthood, such that new parents become more sensitive to frequencies in which pups vocalize, compared to sexually naïve adults. For this, we exposed both groups to a series of tones, and we recorded the auditory brainstem response latency and the detection threshold level for each frequency analyzed. Findings from this study will provide novel insight into potential plasticity of the auditory pathway in new parents, which could facilitate more effective responses to offspring cries.  
Session: There's a method to this madness: Signal variability
The rapid sex steroids-vasopressin interaction modulates social recognition and aggression in male mice
Dario Aspesi, Zachary B. Brill, Grace Guillaume, Sarah Matta, Swathy Sethuraman, Elena Choleris
University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada

Sex steroids in males affect social recognition (SR) and aggression by rapidly interacting with neuropeptides such as arginine-vasopressin (AVP), highly expressed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and lateral septum (LS). The underlying mechanisms of this interplay are yet to be understood. Adult male mice were infused with one of different doses of Testosterone (T), 17β-estradiol (E2) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), in the BNST to elucidate the rapid effects of steroids on SR, assessed 40 min post-infusion by a difficult paradigm. Aggression was tested with a resident-intruder paradigm to evaluate rapid and long-lasting effects. To investigate the steroids/AVP interplay, male mice received infusions of an AVP receptor 1a (α-VR1a) antagonist in the LS immediately prior to steroids in the BNST. Results revealed that all 3 steroids facilitated SR and increased the dominance score at 35-min, but only T and E2 increased dominance score at 120-min. The facilitating effects of T or E2, but not DHT, in the BNST were prevented by infusion of α-VR1a in the LS. These results suggest a complex steroids/AVP interaction, modulating SR and aggression in male mice.
Session: Virtual Talks
Treefrog body color traits are related with call and may transmit information about male body condition
Guilherme Augusto-Alves1,2,3, Gerlinde Höbel3, Luís Felipe Toledo1
1Laboratório de História Natural de Anfíbios Brasileiros (LaHNAB), Departamento de Biologia Animal, Instituto de Biologia, Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 2Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia, Instituto de Biologia, Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 3Department of Biological Sciences, Behavioral and Molecular Ecology Group, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA

Frogs are known for communicating with acoustic signals, but visual communication with gestures, postures, and coloration is also widely reported. The Brazilian treefrog Boana albomarginata has a green body color with orange patches on the flanks and thighs. Such orange patches are visible when frogs are calling, suggesting that they might be used as visual cues by other males or conspecific females. We tested this hypothesis using call recordings and photographs from male frogs across seven populations. We show that color traits are associated with call temporal parameters across all populations, and with spectral traits in two of the seven populations. Additionally, both call and color traits are associated with male body condition. Frogs in better condition had lower frequency calls, longer calls, shorter intervals between calls, and more orange coloration (lower orange hue, higher contrast hue, and larger patch size). We suggest that orange thigh blotches of B. albomarginata could serve as a visual cue indicating male body condition, and that color and call traits, particularly temporal call features, may constitute backup components of a multimodal display system.
Session: Group chat: Communication and Social Behavior
Understanding Pet Dog Aggression with Morphological and Life History Data
Flavio Ayrosa1, Natalia Albuquerque1, Carine Savalli1,2, Briseida Resende1
1Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, 2Universidade Federal do Estado de São Paulo, Santos, São Paulo, Brazil

From a perception-action perspective, aggression emerges from cycles of ever-developing organisms in their environment, influenced by its relevant social interaction context. Under this systematic theory, we accessed pet dog aggression trough the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ), added to morpho-physiological and life history data from dogs and their owners, including data about dog-caretaker colloquial interaction. We used general linear mixed models to investigate how dog morpho-physiological, environmental, and interactional factors could relate to CBARQ's aggression profiles. For our Brazilian pet dog sample of purebred and mongrel dogs, we found significant effect of factors such as skull morphology: with brachycephalic dogs being more aggressive to their owners (OR=1.89, p=0.008); and environment, with dogs who stay indoors being less aggressive to other dogs (OR=0.39, p< 0.001). Said factors interact differently yet relevantly with different aggressive profiles, demonstrating how: rather than one single factor, several genetic, physiological, morphological, and environmental components interact to construct aggressive behaviors in dogs.
Session: Virtual Posters
Transfer and interference effects in nectar robbing by the bumblebee, Bombus impatiens
Minjung Baek, Dan R. Papaj
The University of Arizona, TUCSON, Arizona, USA

Transferring a behavioral response to stimuli learned previously to novel stimuli can give animals immediate benefit without incurring a cost of learning. If stimuli are more similar, the previously learned response will be transferred more easily through generalizing two stimuli. However, if the response required in the new environment is different from the previously learned response, generalizing stimuli may interfere with learning the new response. Here, we gave B. impatiens one type of artificial flower before switching to another. To see how the previously learned stimuli and responses affect the learning in the novel situation, we manipulated the color of each type of flower in relation to two foraging tactics, legitimate visiting and nectar robbing. Our results showed that when bees switched between flowers of similar color but requiring different tactics, they made more errors, whereas switching between flowers of similar color requiring the same foraging tactic resulted in the fewest errors. These findings will help us understand the role of similarity in transfer and interference effects and give insight into conditions under which nectar robbing is favored in bees.
Session: Virtual Talks
Cross-modal Cues and the Cocktail Party
A. Leonie Baier1,2, Logan S. James1,2, Gregg W. Cohen1, Rachel A. Page1, Paul Clements3, Kimberly L. Hunter4, Ryan C. Taylor1,4, Michael J. Ryan1,2
1Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Ancon, Panama, 2Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA, 3Henson School of Technology, Salisbury University, Salisbury, MD, USA, 4Department of Biological Sciences, Salisbury University, Salisbury, MD, USA

Who should I mate with? What should I eat? To make decisions, animals need information. This information is often communicated via multiple sensory modalities. Male túngara frogs call out to female frogs using the auditory modality, but additional modalities also relay information on male quality and location: The male's vocal sac inflates and deflates, also creating detectable water ripples. Such an elaborate mating display attracts eavesdroppers: The frog-eating bat exploits the different display components to home in for a meal. In this model system we study interactions between different sensory modalities and their influence on decision-making. Here we investigate cross-modal facilitation, a process where sensory performance in one modality is improved by stimulation in another modality. Either in ambient noise or with masking frog-chorus playback, frog-eating bats must choose between two robotic frogs presenting either a (differing) unimodal acoustic display or a multimodal display that additionally includes (identical) echoacoustic cues, i.e., the dynamically inflating vocal sac and water ripples. Our study illuminates the complexity associated with multimodal signalling.
Session: Puzzling Animals: Learning and Cognition
Experience with predation influences social group risk-taking and foraging behaviors
Jesse Balaban-Feld1,2, Sundararaj Vijayan2, Burt Kotler2, Lotan Tov Elem2, Zvika Abramsky2
1Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA, 2Ben-Gurion University, Beer Sheva, Israel

Prior experience with predation risk can provide valuable information and influence how individuals decide to forage and trade-off food and safety. We examine foraging and refuge use behaviour among groups of social goldfish (Carrasius auratus) at risk of predation from egrets (Egretta garzetta) for groups containing only fish that previously experienced predators, only naıve fish, or mixed groups containing both experienced and naıve fish. Groups of experienced fish consumed significantly less food than the naıve and mixed groups, and spent the least amount of time foraging. Within the mixed treatment groups, naıve individuals spent more time foraging compared to experienced group members. Interestingly, the mixed groups experienced overall mortality rates similar to the less active experienced groups, even though the mixed groups foraged more like the naıve groups. We found that the mixed groups were able to detect the approaching predator significantly earlier than the all-naıve groups. Thus, we show that naıve individuals within mixed groups did not reduce foraging via social learning from experienced conspecifics, but did benefit from enhanced collective predator detection.
Session: Virtual Talks
Seasonal change in brain size affects associative learning skills in common shrews (Sorex araneus)
Cecilia Baldoni1,2, Dina Dechmann1,2
1 Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior, Radolfzell am Bodensee, Germany, 2Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany

Relative brain size has been linked to a species' capacity to learn a task efficiently. However, studying the influence of brain size on animal cognitive capacities is still a key challenge in brain evolution research. We tested the hypothesis that associative learning skills are positively correlated with individual variance in brain size in the common shrew. This small mammal shrinks its brain from summer to winter to cope with resource shortages, and we predicted that this should affect cognitive abilities. We compared performance of the same shrew individuals when their brains were large in summer and small in winter in an associative odour-reward learning task using a Y-maze. As expected, shrews performed better in summer, suggesting a link between associative learning and brain size. However, we did not observe a significant increase in correct choices throughout 10 trials by individual shrews, either in summer or winter, suggesting that the shrew may not have learned the association solely on olfactory cues. Further research is needed to study associative learning skills in the common shrew using different cues.
Session: Learning is the way, or is it? Cognition and Learning
Maternal effects on early-life gut microbiota maturation in wild geladas
Alice Baniel1,2, Lauren Petrullo3, Arianne Mercer4, Laurie Reitsema5, Sierra Sams4, Jacinta C. Beehner3,6, Thore J. Bergman3,7, Noah Snyder-Mackler1,2,8, Amy Lu9
1Center for Evolution and Medicine, Tempe, AZ, USA, 2School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA, 3Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, 4Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA, 5Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA, 6Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, 7Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, 8School for Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA, 9Department of Anthropology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA

Maternal microbial ecology strongly shapes the trajectory of offspring gut microbiota maturation in humans, with important immune and health consequences. Yet, these maternal effects remain comparatively understudied in wild animals. Here, we used 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing to characterize gut microbiota maturation from birth through maturation in wild geladas (Theropithecus gelada) and assessed the role of maternal attributes on offspring microbiota colonization and development. Our results suggest that maternal characteristics influence early-life gut microbiome composition and function, both during the nursing and post-weaning period. During nursing, offspring of first-time mothers exhibited slower functional microbial maturation, likely reflecting the general slower developmental pace of infants born to these resource-limited mothers. Following weaning, the composition of the juvenile microbiota shares more similarities with the maternal microbiota than to the microbiota of other adult females, highlighting that maternal effects may persist even after nursing cessation. Future studies should aim at unraveling the phenotypic consequences of these maternal effects.
Session: Is it all in their genes? Genetic Effects
Parental care and thermal stability during nesting of Ara militaris.
selene a. barba bedolla1, luis f. mendoza cuanca1,2
1universidad michoacana de san nicolas de hidalgo, morelia, michoacan, Mexico, 2universidad michoacana de san nicolas de hidalgo , morelia, michoacan, Mexico

In birds, Parental Care (PC) has been proposed as a key mechanism that optimizes nest temperature and thermal stability of offspring during incubation and brooding. These behaviors are favored by natural selection because their benefits (e.g., survival and physiological performance of offspring) outweigh the costs associated with care. We studied in a free-living population of the macaw Ara militaris the relationship between patterns of parental care and thermal stability in nests from oviposition to hatching. The analysis of the thermal differential during the nesting of the first reproductive season in A. militaris showed: i) that parental thermoregulation increases the thermal stability of the nests, ii) that the thermal differential of the nest changes along with the ontogenetic development of the progeny; iii) the parents vary in their capacity to maintain the stability of their nests. Our results confirm that parental thermoregulatory care in A. militaris is key to providing thermal stability to their offspring, which may have significant consequences on their physiology, performance, and ultimately fitness.
Session: Bringing Up Baby: Parental Behavior
The value in the details: copulatory courtship behavior in soldier flies and bean beetles
Flavia Barbosa
Lake Forest College, Lake Forest, IL, USA

William Eberhard's legacy attests to the value of detailed behavioral observations. The significance of this descriptive approach can be illustrated by the phenomenon of copulatory courtship, or courtship that occurs during and following copulation. Through meticulous descriptions of copulatory behavior in numerous arthropods, Eberhard has demonstrated that copulatory courtship is common and widespread, and is likely a behavior shaped by cryptic female choice. Here I will highlight the importance of detailed observations of copulatory behaviors in both an understudied tropical species and a model organism. In the soldier fly Merosargus cingulatus, males perform copulatory courtship by waving their hind legs and tapping the female abdomen during copulation. In the absence of this behavior, females fail to oviposit after copulation, which is a mechanism of cryptic female choice. In bean beetles (Callosobruchus maculatus), males tap the female body with their antennae immediately before intromission. The courtship function of this antennation behavior is being investigated. These examples demonstrate that careful observations can generate novel insights, even in well-studied species.
Session: Detailed Observations of Behavior for Generating Questions and Answering Them – A tribute to William Eberhard and Mary Jane West-Eberhard.
Muestreo acústico automatizado e índices acústicos para el monitoreo de anuros en un paisaje andino colombiano
Eliana Barona-Cortes1, Wilmar Bolivar-Garcia2, Maria Isabel Herrera-Montes2
1Instituto Humboldt, Villa del leyva, boyaca, Columbia, 2Universidad del Valle, cali, valle del cauca, Columbia

Bioacoustic methods are an attractive solution for biological monitoring, especially in degraded habitats where immediate management strategies become necessary. Acoustic indices summarize sound energy from wildlife and are associated with bird species richness.  However, the association is unclear for other bioindicator groups such as anurans. This work established the relationship between acoustic indices and anuran richness and evaluated the efficiency of automated recording for species detection to guide conservation strategies in an Andean landscape. Richness values were similar when quantified traditionally and using automated detection algorithms, suggesting that bioacoustic monitoring can capture assemblage biodiversity values. Some acoustic indices are useful to study species richness, and their spatial distribution could facilitate the integration with landscape configuration variables.  These results are evidence of the potential of bioacoustics as a tool for identifying key conservation areas and design of management strategies in protected zones. Potential future acoustic research includes monitoring bioindicator species and changes in diversity components. 
Session: Virtual Posters
Mother-offspring interaction in the domestic rabbit - via feces?
Rodrigo Barrios Montiel1, María de Lourdes Arteaga2, Robyn Hudson 3
1Postgraduate in Biological Sciences, UATx, Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala, Mexico, 2Tlaxcala Center for Behavioral Biology, UATx, Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala, Mexico, 3Institute of Biomedical Research, UNAM, Ciudad de México, Ciudad de México, Mexico

The European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus, shows coprophagia (voluntary ingestion of feces), benefiting the assimilation of nutrients present in the feces and synthesis of hormones and neurotransmitters. In nature and in the lab, after giving birth in a plant-lined nest, rabbit mothers leave the young, returning once a day to briefly nurse. They also deposit fecal pellets in the nest. In a systematic study of this, we have presently recorded the behavior of mothers and young of 14 litters. We found that mothers start to deposit feces in the nest 3-5 days before parturition and cease between PD10­-13. From PD11-14, pups begin to nibble the feces and nest material, which largely disappear by the time the pups leave the nest shortly before weaning around PD25. Additionally, we confirmed the consumption of plant fiber by pups from microscopic examination of the content of their feces. The pattern of feces deposition was similar in primiparous and multiparous females, suggesting it to be largely independent of maternal experience. We are presently examining the possible short-and long-term effects of the presence or absence of fecal pellets in the nest on the development of the young. .
Session: Virtual Posters
The dorsal hippocampal D2-type dopamine receptor and progesterone interplay in social learning in male mice
Noah Bass, Samantha McGuinness, Elena Choleris
University of Guelph , Guelph, Ontario, Canada

Social learning refers to "learning that occurs via the observation of, or interaction with, a conspecific or its products" (Heyes, 1994), and may be studied using the social transmission of food preference (STFP). Preliminary findings showed that the impairing effects of intra-HPC D2-type dopamine receptor antagonism on social learning were countered by progesterone (P4) replacement in ovariectomized mice. The role of P4 in males is unknown. Males and females exhibit similar P4 receptor immunoreactivity in the CA1 region of the HPC which are also similarly distributed in the HPC formation (Mitterling et al., 2011). We investigate whether dorsal HPC D2-type receptors interplay with P4 to regulate social learning in males. Castrated "observer" (OBS) mice receive long term P4 treatment prior to dorsal HPC infusions of a D2-type receptor antagonist. OBSs then undergo a 30-minute social interaction with a recently fed "demonstrator" (DEM), prior to having access to two novel food diets for 8-hours. If social learning occurs, OBSs prefer the DEM diet. We predict that P4 will counter the impairing effects of intra-HPC D2-type receptor antagonism on social learning in castrated males.
Session: Virtual Posters
Infection detection and female aggression in a wolf spider.
Olivia Bauer-Nilsen, Megan McConnell, George Uetz
University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA

Resistance to mating by females has been hypothesized as a tactic to assess potential mates and avoid undesirable ones. We examined impacts of infection on mating interactions of the wolf spider, Schizocosa ocreata. Previous studies show infection with the pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa triggers a costly immune response and negatively impacts fitness.  Infection can be transmitted during copulation and detected by females through chemical cues, suggesting there are fitness costs associated with mating with an infected individual and becoming infected. Spiders were collected from the field, raised to maturity in the lab, and infected at adulthood (24 hours prior to testing).  We paired infected and uninfected (control) males and females and recorded their behavior. We found that higher male courtship rates and more frequent female receptivity displays were associated with successful mating, regardless of infection status.  However, among unmated pairs, females were more aggressive toward infected males than control males, and males were more aggressive with resistant (control) females. These results suggest females can recognize infected males and avoid mating with them.
Session: Virtual Posters
Methodological Strategies to Reduce Bias in Orienting Testing of Terrapin and Sea Turtle Hatchlings
TriciaLyn Beamer1, Bethany Holtz2, Courtney Parks2, Gigi Hess2, Scott McRobert2
1University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA, 2Saint Joseph’s University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

In an orientation experiment with terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin), leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), green (Chelonia mydas), and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) hatchlings, we examined the effects of habitation and holding time on activity level and movement. Habituation, when a hatchling explores the arena prior to testing, affected both the time and final location for terrapins in response to no stimuli and marsh sounds (time: no stimuli p< 0.05, marsh sounds p< 0.005; location: p=< 0.001). Final trial time decreased from 0, 2, and 4 minute habituation periods respectively. Leatherbacks presented with beach surf sounds and simulated moonlight habituated at 0, 2, and 4 minutes had no change in their final trial time or location (time: beach surf p=0.808, moonlight p=0.35; location: beach surf p=0.40, moonlight p=0.35). Holding time, the time between emergence and testing, and trial time had a weak positive relation in all species of sea turtles (Pearson r =0.089, p=0.05) but a weak negative relationship in terrapins (Pearson r =-0.095, p=0.062). Habituation and holding time impact testing behaviors of species differently and should be examined before formal experimentation.
Session: Poster Session 1
Multi-species host use of the eavesdropping parasitic fly Ormia lineifrons
Oliver M. Beckers, Kyler J. Rogers
Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky, USA

Mating signals of insects do not only attract their intended receivers but also eavesdropping parasites. The ensuing arms race has a high potential for introducing diversity in the involved species. Here, we present data on the host usage of the rarely studied tachinid fly Ormia lineifrons that uses Neoconocephalus katydids as hosts for its lethal larvae. Four of six surveyed Neoconocephalus species were parasitized and killed by the fly in Kentucky. Lab rearing of pupae indicated that the fly was multivoltine and synchronized each of its seasonal generations with different host species. The parasitism rate across hosts peaked between 38% and 100%. Parasite load and pupal development time did not differ among host species. However, fly development success was lowest for N. triops, the species that the fly likely has evolved with for the longest time. We discuss the importance of the synchronization between fly generations and their different host species as well as the potential counteradaptations of the hosts. This multi-species arms race can provide novel insights in the coevolution of parasites and their hosts.     
Session: Feeling under the weather: Parasites and Disease
Lack of lateralization during search patterns in wild, food-caching chickadees
Lauren M. Benedict1, Virginia K. Heinen1, Benjamin R. Sonnenberg1, Angela M. Pitera1, Eli S. Bridge2, Vladimir V. Pravosudov1
1University of Nevada Reno, Reno, Nevada, USA, 2University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma Biological Survey, Norman, Oklahoma, USA

Structural and functional asymmetries in the brain and nervous system, broadly defined as lateralization, have been widely documented across the animal kingdom. Lateralization can be detected at a behavioral level through left-right preferences, such as which direction to turn around a barrier, which eye to use to view different types of stimuli or which hand, paw or foot to use to manipulate objects. At a cognitive level, these asymmetries may allow for improved parallel processing of information; indeed, individual variation in the strength of lateralization has been linked to variation in cognitive performance. However, less is known about how lateralization may be involved in search patterns within a foraging context. Here, we took advantage of a testing paradigm in which wild mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli) learn the spatial location of one food source out of 8 possible feeder locations. In our study, we tested whether the birds (A) have a directional bias (left or right) when moving between feeders to search for a rewarding feeder and (B) whether this possible laterality may affect individual cognitive performance on the spatial learning and memory task.
Session: Puzzling Animals: Learning and Cognition
Cumulative experience influences future contest outcomes
Macie D. Benincasa1, Ian M. Hamilton1,2
1The Ohio State University, Department of Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology, Columbus, OH, USA, 2The Ohio State University, Department of Mathematics, Columbus, OH, USA

Conflict can be costly in terms of energy and risk of injury, so individuals benefit from having accurate information on the expected costs and benefits of a contest before deciding to enter one. Past contest experiences can provide information relevant to future contests through winner-loser effects. Winner-loser effects can influence dominance hierarchy formation, but when contests are repeated, experience can alter the probability of winning in surprising ways. This may determine if a dominance hierarchy is reinforced or destabilized over time. This study explores how prior experience influences contest outcomes, using Neolamprologus pulcher as a model organism. Contestants received single, reinforcing, and contradictory experiences and their behavioral and hormonal responses were measured to examine how individuals integrate information from previous contests in future encounters. Preliminary analyses suggest individuals with a single experience exhibit more overt aggression than those with contradictory experiences. These data will inform how repeated experiences can alter an individual's perceived fighting ability and the impact this may have on dominance hierarchy stability.
Session: Virtual Posters
Boldness Syndromes in Mixed-Species Flocks of Songbirds
Scott A. Benson
University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA

Songbirds often form flocks with individuals from closely related species. These mixed-species flocks may have each species filling functional roles or interacting similarly to monospecific flocks, depending on how much the behaviors and ecologies overlap between species. Tufted titmice and Carolina chickadees form mixed-species flocks together and share very similar ecologies. Titmice are larger, tend to be the dominant individuals, and their frequent vocalizations fill the role of sentry in the flock. However, prior research has shown that chickadees vocalize more when no titmice are present, suggesting that the role of sentry isn't strictly filled along species lines in all cases. To better understand why and when individuals across both species seem to fill roles according to their flock composition, I propose testing pertinent personality traits of individuals relative to their flockmates. Presented are preliminary data from an ongoing project showing species differences and overlap in boldness, measured relative to flockmates in a suite of flock-at-once behavioral tests.
Session: For the love of others: Social evolution and behavior
Documenting Parental Care Behaviors of Two Species of Ovoviviparous Cockroaches  
Rebecca K. Beresic-Perrins, Madelyn Ford, Cheyenne Phipps, Nathaniel Coss, Stephen M. Shuster
Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA

There are about 3,500 described species of cockroaches found worldwide. The family Blaberidae is known to reproduce ovoviviparous including Madagascar hissing (Gromphadorhina portentosa) and Dubia (Blaptica dubia) cockroaches. There is little known about their parental care behaviors, possibly overlooked because of peoples' aversion to cockroaches. We have embarked to document these behaviors and how they affect offspring fitness. For behavioral documentation, we used mating pairs and families from our offspring fitness study (see poster) where families were divided into three treatments: Biparental, uniparental, and no care. In spring 2021, we made weekly two-minute observations of the mating pairs pre- and post- parturition. Our observations included adult proximity, interactions to each other and with the offspring. In spring 2022, we took a subset of the mating pairs and family groups (N=5 (G. portentosa); N=5, B. dubia) and set up video cameras to document behaviors at night. We recorded video for each set for 48 hours. At the writing of this abstract, we found that offspring congregate under the males more and offspring congregate with themselves in the no care treatment.  
Session: Bringing Up Baby: Parental Behavior
An Apparent Match in Signal Form in two Acoustic Courtship Displays in Anna's Hummingbirds (Calypte anna)
Ayala N. Berger, Polly Campbell, Chris J. Clark
University of California, Riverside, Stanford, CA, USA

Complex courtship displays are of central interest in animal behavior. Lacking is research into the potential emergent features of these signals. Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) produce complex acoustic courtship signals mechanically with wing and tail feathers during a dive, and vocally with their syrinx. Despite having different mechanisms of production, part of the song ("dive-like song") acoustically resembles sounds of the dive displays. Both signals are comprised of four syllables and include trills, polyphonic and pure sounds. We investigate to what degree there is a match between an individual's dive-sounds and their dive-like songs. We audio-recorded twenty iterations of each signal from twenty male Anna's. Both dive-sounds and songs were elicited with a mount and the bird's position in relation to the microphone was standardized. We quantified the degree of temporal and frequency correspondence between dive-like songs and dive-sounds within an individual as compared to the population by measuring peak frequency, trill rate, and duration. Results from this study will provide insight into signal evolution and highlight potential emergent properties.
Session: All's Fair in Love and War: Sexual selection and Sexual Conflict
Sex Differences in Whirling Behavior in Pholcus phalangioides.
Alexander Dean Berry1, Ann L Rypstra2
1Buena Vista University, Storm Lake, IA, USA, 2Miami University, Oxford, OH, USA

Predation is a risk for most species. As such anti-predator behaviors are common among many animals.  The cellar spider Pholcus phalangioides displays a complex antipredator behavior known as whirling, where the spider rapidly spins in its web and is thought to visually confuse the predator.  We set out to examine if there were differences in the whirling behavior between males and females.  We tested this by using a simulated predator stimulus to trigger whirling and then videoing both males and females.  We then analyzed the videos for speed, duration, the shape of the whirling pattern, and other components of the whirling behavior.  We found significant differences between males and females in whirling behaviors, such as males whirling faster than females and females whirling in a more elliptical pattern than males.    Females were also more likely to whirl in response to our stimulus.  Some of these differences may be to differences in biology or willingness to abandon a web, but others may indicate differences in whirling strategy or differences in the effeteness of whirling as an anti-predator behavior.
Session: Escaping the Enemy: Antipredator Strategies
Olfactory Cues and Pup Recognition in the California Mouse (Peromyscus californicus)
Janet K. Bester-Meredith, Anton Milan Brkic, Hera Cadelina, Yaira N. Ponce, Jessica E. Vester
Seattle Pacific University, SEATTLE, WA, USA

In the monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), both males and females actively care for young. Both parents devote considerable time to grooming, retrieving, and huddling with offspring. Despite the high costs of caring for offspring, it is unclear whether parents can discriminate between their own biological offspring and unfamiliar pups. Mated pairs may rarely encounter unfamiliar pups because they live on territories that they actively defend. In this study, we examined whether mothers and fathers can discriminate between biological offspring and unfamiliar pups and the role of olfactory cues in this discrimination. Half of the mice received biweekly intranasal injections of zinc gluconate, a compound that selectively blocks transmission of signals through the olfactory epithelium. Control animals received biweekly intranasal injections of sterile vehicle. In all mice, we examined how pup recognition changes for mothers and fathers at six time points ranging from shortly after birth through thirty days after weaning. Our results suggest that disruption of olfactory signals does not affect pup recognition in this species.
Session: Virtual Talks
Interaction between territoriality and traits of males in Neotropical Poison Frogs
Mileidy Betancourth-Cundar1, Virginie Canoine2, Leonida Fusani3, Carlos Daniel Cadena1
1Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Columbia, 2Department of Behavioral and Cognitive Biology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 3Konrad Lorenz Institute of Ethology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria

The territory is part of the extended phenotype of males and the ability of individuals to defend it may be an honest indicator of male quality or social status. Other male traits may also be under sexual selection. A frequent question is whether male traits and characteristics of their territory are correlated and what are the mechanisms that may mediate such associations when they exist. Because hormones are phenotypic integrators, by studying the role of testosterone in territoriality one may come closer to understanding the mechanisms mediating these correlations. We evaluated whether variation of territory attributes, measured using intrusion experiments, are correlated with variation in morphology, coloration, androgen levels, heterozygosity, and call activity. We used two poison frogs, Oophaga lehmanni and Allobates aff. trilineatus, which exhibit contrasting reproductive strategies. We found that morphological traits (body length, weight, and thigh size), vocal activity, and androgen levels correlated with size and ecological attributes of the territory, but which traits covaried and whether correlations were positive or negative depended on the species.
Session: Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus, or Is It the Opposite? Sexual conflict
Human presence influences personality traits in a free-living mammal
Amelia Binnett1, Chelsea A. Ortiz-Jimenez2, Sophie Conroy1, Andrew Sih2, Jennifer E. Smith1
1Mills College, Oakland, California, USA, 2University of California Davis, Davis, California, USA

Animal personality, defined as consistent individual differences in behavioral response over time, is a well documented phenomenon within natural populations of animals. Previous studies have established personality trends in response to an urban-rural gradient; however, few have examined this behavioral response at a finer scale, exploring the effects human presence has on personality apart from the urban world. For this study we developed a field assay to quantify individual responses in a novel testing arena for California ground squirrels (Otospermophilus beecheyi) from two populations that differ in their exposure to human presence. We anticipated that individuals will have consistent behavioral responses, and that individuals living in areas of higher human activity will have less behavioral variation than those living in the more pristine site. As predicted, we detected behavioral types that were consistent for individuals over time and site level differences in reactivity. Our findings have implications for understanding the effects of human activity on animal personalities. 
Session: Virtual Posters
Resting pattern of Indian free-ranging dogs
Sourabh Biswas, Anindita Bhadra
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur, West Bengal, India

Resting, a basic survival behaviour in animals, optimizes energy consumption and maintains bodily function. Free-ranging dogs remain inactive more than 50% of the time in a day. Moreover, being social animals, resting associations within the group might play an vital role in the social dynamics within the groups. The site of resting is likely to be chosen based on availability of certain physical parameters that enhance comfort and also enable prompt territorial response. We carried out a study to understand the physical parameters that might influence choice of resting sites by free-ranging dogs and the temporal variation of resting areas. The study was conducted in West Bengal, India. Resting data were collected in eight different time slots within 24 hours of the day. Data collection was done on 64 groups with 397 dogs. Various physical parameters of the resting sites, specific resting behaviour and their GPS locations were recorded during each sampling bout. Our study revealed that dogs prefer resting on specific surfaces and resting in low disturbance areas. Food and water also have a significant effect in choosing the resting site.  
Session: Virtual Posters
Heat stress inhibits cognitive performance in wild Western Australian magpies
Grace Blackburn1, Broom Ethan1, Benjamin Ashton2, Thornton Alex3, Ridley Amanda1
1University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia, 2Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, 3University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom

Cognition enables animals to respond to environmental changes and has been linked to fitness in multiple species. Identifying the potential impact of a warming climate on cognition is therefore crucial. Although rising temperatures are known to have many effects on wildlife, the effects of temperature on cognition are unknown in the wild. We quantified individual performance in a learning task under both heat stress and non-heat-stress conditions to investigate the relationship between heat stress and cognition in wild magpies over two consecutive years. We found that heat stress had a negative effect on performance in both years, with individual pass rates of 5.6% and 15% under heat stress, compared to 82.4% and 76% under non heat stress conditions. The long-term repeatability of cognitive performance within conditions was high but repeatability between conditions was low, suggesting that this observed effect cannot be attributed solely to natural fluctuation in cognitive performance. This study is one of the first to reveal the negative effect of heat stress on cognitive performance in a wild animal, drawing attention to the potential cognitive consequences of heat. 
Session: Virtual Talks
Change in Social Network with Familiarity in Chinook Salmon (O. tshawytscha) and Agent-based Simulation
Aviva F Blonder1, Cassidy J Cooper2, Kenneth W Zillig2, Jeffrey C Schank1, Nann A Fangue2
1University of California, Davis, Department of Psychology, Davis, California, USA, 2University of California, Davis, Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Conservation, Davis, California, USA

The costs and benefits of aggregation often depend on which individuals aggregate together; however understanding group composition has generally been a low priority in conservation. In particular, many species benefit from associating with familiar individuals, who they frequently encounter, over those they rarely encounter. We investigate whether associating with familiar individuals may enable hatchery-reared, California native Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) to form more cohesive schools, potentially enhancing the benefits of shoaling during a critical early lifestage. We analyze the change in association networks of juvenile Chinook salmon as individuals have the opportunity to become familiar, and compare them to the results of an agent-based model, which simulates schools of fish that can preferentially associate with their familiar neighbors. This work provides insight into the social structure of a culturally and economically important species of high conservation concern, and demonstrates how agent-based models can be used to understand the processes driving population structure, to then predict outcomes that are difficult to test empirically.
Session: Virtual Posters
The Influence of Plant Communities on Painted Turtle (Chrysemys picta) Habitat Use
Paige N. Boban, Beth A. Reinke
Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago, IL, USA

Plant and animal biodiversity is under threat due to our rapidly changing climate. Understanding the role of plant communities in animal habitat selection and use can inform strategies for mitigating declining animal populations. The painted turtle is a widespread freshwater species in North America that inhabits a variety of habitats. We combined an experimental approach with visual surveys to determine how painted turtle space occupation was impacted by vegetation in a northern Wisconsin lake system. We found that the space occupied by turtles could be predicted by the distribution of key plant species and that relationship changed throughout the active season. Plant communities can strongly influence the spatial distribution and overall behavior of freshwater turtle populations that are declining due to habitat loss and climate change, and should be considered when making conservation decisions.
Session: Poster Session 1
Avian Community Shift over Seasons in an Urban-Agroecosystem
Rachel E. Bockrath, Elizabeth S.C. Scordato
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, Pomona, California, USA

Changes in human land use are contributing to the decline of global avian populations, and are reordering avian community structure across habitats. While studies have independently been conducted in the context of agricultural expansion and urbanization, we lack a clear understanding of how avian communities vary across natural, urbanized, and agricultural habitats. Determining how avian species use these diverse habitats will improve conservation and management decisions. To characterize changes in avian community composition across habitats and seasons, I am conducting point count surveys in the Santa Clara River Valley (SCRV) of Southern California. The SCRV is a heterogeneous urban-agroecosystem that contains major habitat types common throughout California: a restored riparian corridor, remnant coastal sage scrub, citrus and avocado orchards, suburban neighborhoods, and urban areas. Results thus far indicate that each habitat hosts a unique avian community and those communities change seasonally. This study illustrates the importance of considering seasonal shifts in bird behavioral ecology when investigating a heterogeneous urban-agroecosystem.
Session: Virtual Posters
First Observations of Harbor Porpoise Matings in Alaska & Preliminary Results from Photo ID Matching
Deborah D Boege Tobin1, 2, Marc A. Webber3,4, Bruce A. Schulte1,5
1University of Alaska Anchorage, Homer, AK, USA, 2Alaska Center for Conservation Science-Kachemak Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Homer, AK, USA, 32The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, CA, USA, 4California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA, USA, 5Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY, USA

Harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena; HAPO) have a reputation for being inconspicuous and thus until recently have been under-examined despite their common nearshore occurrence across a wide range in the Northern Hemisphere. For the past 7 yr, we have studied this species which regularly occurs in a small lagoon near Homer, Alaska. HAPO, along with harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris), have a near-continuous presence in this rich microenvironment. Herein, we describe our photo identification work, recaptures, and two left-lateralized observations of aerial mating behavior, the first two records for Alaska. A recent description of HAPO mating habits in San Francisco Bay revealed that males often become fully or partially airborne as a consequence of rapid sexual approaches to females (69% of mating attempts, n=85) and aerial behavior occurred only in a mating context. Furthermore, mating attempts were always left-lateralized (100% of approaches, n=142). Recently, we expanded our study area to other areas in Kachemak Bay, Alaska, and plan to examine habitat use, mating and foraging behavior, watercraft disturbance and define conservation hot-spots.
Session: Poster Session 1
How plants make cats happy
Sebastiaan Bol1, Adrian Scaffidi2, Evelien Bunnik1, Gavin Flematti2
1Cowboy Cat Ranch, Mico, Texas, USA, 2University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia

In addition to catnip, several other plants are able to elicit the "catnip response" in domestic cats. We tested how and how long domestic cats responded to 6 cat-attracting plants and 13 single compounds. 687 responses were video recorded and analyzed. We found striking differences in behavior between cats, but the responses from individual cats to the various plants were similar. We showed that at least 10 single compounds, all detected in the cat-attracting plants, were able to elicit the "catnip response", including the structurally more distinct actinidine and dihydroactinidiolide. Significant differences between cats in response duration and behavior to actinidine were observed. Results from habituation/dishabituation experiments suggested unidentified cat-attracting compounds may be present in Tatarian honeysuckle.
Session: Keep me happy: Animal behavior and welfare in captivity
Sublethal Effects of Low-dose Exposure to Imidacloprid on the American Lobster Homarus americanus
Krystal M. Boley1, Amalia M. Harrington2, M. Scarlett Tudor2, Heather J. Hamlin1
1School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, Maine, USA, 2Maine Sea Grant at the University of Maine, Orono, Maine, USA

Atlantic salmon farms face the ongoing challenge of managing sea lice infestations due to reduced sensitivity to extensively used chemotherapeutants. Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide implemented as a novel chemical to mitigate sea lice infestations on European salmon farms. Prior to consideration for use in the Northwest Atlantic, we tested its effect on the economically valuable nontarget species, the American lobster, Homarus americanus. Behavior and hemolymph biochemistry of female lobsters were assessed following a 120-minute exposure to the imidacloprid concentrations 0, 0.3 or 30 ppb. Observations were repeated after a five-day recovery period to evaluate chronic effects. Defensive behaviors were found to be significantly reduced for lobsters exposed to the 30 ppb imidacloprid concentration, and some remained significantly reduced five days after exposure. Interestingly, overall hemolymph endpoints were not significantly different, highlighting the importance of behavioral endpoint observations. These findings suggest that lobsters exposed to low environmental concentrations of imidacloprid may have impaired behaviors of ecological and economic importance.
Session: Come what may: Ecological Effects
Guest-ant social parasites drive social host tolerance using venom signaling
Matthew R. Boot1, Kyle S. Sozanski1, Mazie Davis1, Stefanie Neupert2, Tappey H. Jones3, Ian M. Hamilton1, Rachelle M. M. Adams1,4
1The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA, 2University of Otago, Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand, 3Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA, USA, 4Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA

Communication is a fundamental component of symbiosis—if or how a symbiont engages in communication with their associates often directly corresponds with the nature of the relationship.  Eusocial insect societies exhibit a unique type of symbiotic lifestyle—parasitism of one social unit (i.e., colony) by another—in which resources are obtained despite risking repeated social interactions.  Megalomyrmex symmetochus guest-ant parasites are known to maintain long-term nest integration with their host colonies of Sericomyrmex amabilis, a stingless fungus-farming ant.  During interactions, M. symmetochus is frequently observed to dispense alkaloid venom directly through stinging or indirectly by aerosolization of volatile pyrrolizidine alkaloids.  We show that M. symmetochus primarily use their toxic venom indirectly to modulate host behavioral resistance.  We interpret this indirect venom behavior as an honest threat signal which results in reduced lethal aggression between heterospecific nestmates.  Further, this venom signaling strategy may favor the evolution of reduced interspecific antagonism by reducing fitness costs to both species.
Session: Virtual Talks
Call complexity in the Golden Lesser Treefrog, Dendropsophus minutus
João Pedro Bovolon, Luís Felipe Toledo
Laboratório de História Natural de Anfíbios Brasileiros (LaHNAB), Departamento de Biologia Animal, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

Animal communication includes from simple to complex signals. Such complexity can be used by females to select males for reproduction. In South America Dendropsophus minutus has 3 notes in its vocal repertoire that can be arranged in more than 70 ways. In our case we were interested in the complexity of the call emitted by each individual. This can be measured by calculating the call entropy, a measurement of the unevenness of the dataset, monotonic sets having lower entropy and more rich sets having higher entropy. We hypothesized that ambient, social or morphological traits influence the call complexity. We used a GLMM to investigate the relationships between those variables and the call complexity, and we found positive relationships between temperature (β = 0.14, X² = 0.01, p = 0.05), humidity (β= 0.03, X² = 0.03, p = 0.05), and number of notes (β = 0.007, X² = 0.0009, p = 0.05) with call complexity. The relationship with the number of notes is unexpected as in general longer calls tend to be more complex. On the other hand, the effect of temperature is expected as in warmer nights these treefrogs are more active, which could allow an increase in call complexity.
Session: Chirps, Croaks and more! Acoustic Communication
Natural selection acts on the spatial cognitive abilities of food-caching birds, but do females concur?
Carrie L Branch1,2, Joseph F Welklin3, Benjamin R Sonnenberg3, Angela M Pitera3, Eli Bridge4, Vladimir V Pravosudov3
1Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA, 2Western University, London, Ontario, Canada, 3University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA, 4University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA

Organisms inhabiting heterogenous environments may experience differences in selection pressures, leading to limited movement and local adaptation. In montane regions, these differences in selection pressures occur rapidly and predictably on a rather small spatial scale, such that individuals inhabiting higher elevations experience harsher winter conditions with more and longer snow cover and lower ambient temperatures compared to their lower elevation counterparts. Recently, we have shown that selection is acting on the spatial cognitive abilities of food-caching mountain chickadees. Here we assessed whether male and female social mates pair assortatively based on their spatial cognitive performance.  Our results suggest that birds at low elevations pair assortatively by cognitive performance, while at high elevation females are more likely to be mated with a male that performs better than themselves on our spatial cognitive task. These results are consistent with our previous work suggesting that selection on spatial cognitive abilities acts stronger on birds at higher elevations and females appear to choose social mates accordingly.
Session: All's Fair in Love and War: Sexual selection and Sexual Conflict
Kin I get some help over here? How social decisions are shaped by relatedness (or lack thereof)  
Lauren JN Brent, Andre S Pereira, Zhuli Cheng, Delphine De Moor, Erin R Siracusa
University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom

The evolution of group-living and cooperation have been linked to the indirect fitness benefits obtained by living and cooperating with kin. Because kin can provide greater inclusive fitness than non-kin, we may expect societies of same sex non-kin to be rare and for cooperation to be mostly with kin. Here, we explore how relatedness shapes the composition of mammal groups and cooperative relationships. Using published pedigree data on non-captive populations, we show that living with non-kin is not uncommon in group-living mammals. Half the species in our sample lived only with kin, while the other half were mix-related groups, with same-sex kin and non-kin. But non-kin who live together don't necessarily cooperate. In the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) where females form mixed-related groups, we quantified prevalence of non-kin social bonds. Females often formed bonds with unrelated partners. These relationships were more volatile compared to those with kin, suggesting the function social bonds in this species may diverge between kin and non-kin partners. Our results suggest that direct fitness benefits are important in the evolution of mammalian group-living and cooperation.  
Session: Social Competency: An Integrative Approach to Understanding Connections Between Social Information, Decision-Making, and Cognition
A comparative review of interspecific social play among nonhuman animals
Heather JB Brooks, Gordon M Burghardt
University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA

Few species play socially with another species, hereafter called interspecific social play (ISP). We conducted two reviews of non-human ISP: in literature and in videos on platforms like YouTube and Reddit. We found 166 instances of ISP across 56 print media and 79 videos. The literature predominantly featured wild primates, carnivores, and marine mammals. Carnivores (particularly dogs) and terrestrial ungulates were featured most in the videos. ISP in some avian and reptile species was also found in both reviews. Animals may engage in ISP: (1) because it is risky play and exciting, (2) a lack of age-appropriate conspecifics to play with, (3) to establish adult behaviors, or (4) maintain social bonds in mixed-species groups. By cataloguing documented cases of ISP, we can discover more about which species are interacting and why. This is difficult to assess when most current evidence of ISP is brief and anecdotal. In the future, researchers should record detailed information about each ISP observation. Additionally, careful empirical studies can start to explore why this phenomenon occurs.
Session: Poster Session 2
Oxytocin promotes social grooming in bonobo
James Brooks1,2, Fumihiro Kano2,3,4, Hanling Yeow5, Naruki Morimura1,2, Shinya Yamamoto1,6
1Wildlife Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, 2Kumamoto Sanctuary, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, 3Center for the Advanced Study of Collective Behaviour, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany, 4Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior, Konstanz, Germany, 5Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany, 6Institute for Advanced Study, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

Oxytocin has attracted research attention due to its role in promoting social bonding. One notable recent hypothesis is the biobehavioral feedback loop, which posits that the oxytocin system can support the formation and maintenance of social bonds through a positive feedback loop, where oxytocin promotes social behaviours which then cause oxytocin release themselves. In the two Pan species, humans' closest relatives, oxytocin is known to be released following key behaviours related to social bonding, such as social grooming in chimpanzees and female-female sexual behaviour in bonobos. However, no experimental evidence has demonstrated that oxytocin promotes such socio-positive behaviours in Pan. To test this, we administered nebulized oxytocin or saline placebo to a group of female bonobos and subsequently observed the change in their gross behavior during free interaction. We found that bonobos groomed other group members significantly more frequently in the oxytocin compared to placebo condition. We thus found that oxytocin promoted socio-positive interaction in bonobos, providing support for the biobehavioural feedback loop hypothesis of oxytocin in bonobo social evolution.
Session: Influencing each other: Social Behavior
What do insects hear? Acoustically-mediated risk assessment in the field cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus.
Emma A. Brown1, Julie Morand-Ferron1, Jayne E. Yack2
1University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada

Insects face a variety of threats including predation and parasitization by their natural enemies. Many insects have thus evolved sensory specializations to assess risk. Acoustic sensory systems have evolved multiple times in insects, but the role of hearing and vibration detection in risk assessment, aside from detecting ultrasonic bat echolocation calls, is poorly understood. Using the fall field cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus, this experiment tests the hypothesis that insects use sounds and vibrations from non-bat predators to assess risk. We predict that (a) natural predators attacking crickets produce sounds or vibrations; (b) these overlap with cricket acoustic sensitivity; and (c) playbacks of these recordings will evoke antipredator behaviours in crickets. We performed sound and solid-borne vibration recordings of acoustic stimuli generated by natural predators (e.g. American toad, Eastern bluebird, tachinid flies). Acoustic characteristics of sounds and vibrations generated by these enemies overlap with acoustic sensitivity of adult crickets. Playback experiments are underway and crickets are being assessed for their behavioural responses to different stimuli.  
Session: Poster Session 2
What do differences in feather color and brightness tell us about Great Tits?
Madisen Brown, Michael Reichert, Clarrisa Gottfried, Rachel Atherton
Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA

Feather color varies greatly among and within species of birds. It is important to determine the relationships between feather coloration and other traits in order to reveal how feathers might be used for communication. We analyzed the relationships between feather color and brightness of Great Tits and characteristics related to reproduction, morphology, and cognition. With a uniquely large sample size, including repeated data collection from the same individuals over a span of several years, we examined how feather color and brightness are related to reproduction, morphology, and cognition both at the population level and at the individual level over time. Predictably, feather brightness was correlated with sex and age. There were no significant relationships between feather color traits and past, present, or future reproductive success. Feather color traits were not significantly repeatable, suggesting a strong dependence on environmental variation. We did find a significant relationship between both feather color and brightness and skull and beak size, which suggests that feather color and brightness are related to cognitive ability and foraging behavior.
Session: Virtual Posters
Keepng connected: comparison of Asian Wild Dog and Bush Dog pack vocalization under low visibility conditions.
David G. Browning
Browning Biotech, Kingston, Rhode Island, USA

Hunting dog packs usually coordinate effort by visualization. But when that is limited, Wild Asian Dogs and Bush Dogs compensate with vocalizations which meet certain criteria; must be brief and low level so not to alert or direct prey, require minimum additional effort as dogs are highly stressed, and be distinct from background noise. Dholes meet these conditions with a simple short whistle, while Bush Dogs with a greater presencece in a noisy jungle use a richer tonal squeak.
Session: Virtual Posters
Soundscapes of Conservation: High-pitched frog calls rely on high-quality habitat
Rebecca M Brunner1,2, Juan Manuel Guayasamin3, Claire Kremen4
1University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA, 2Third Millennium Alliance, Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador, 3Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador, 4University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Human actions have become one of the dominant forces driving the outcomes of a classic question in ecology: Why are species found where they are? It is fairly common for related species to share many characteristics (breeding strategy, diet, coloration, etc.) and still exhibit different responses to habitat conversion. What drives this variation? In most frog species, females select males on the basis of advertisement call attributes. The properties of a particular habitat may enhance signal effectiveness, while another degrades the sound enough to render it unrecognizable to a receptive female. For instance, low frequency sounds generally travel farther and attenuate slower, since longer wavelengths can move around objects. We hypothesized that habitat degredation limits the ability of certain species to propogate their calls. We found that across species, genera, and families, Ecuadorian frogs with high-frequency calls were less likely to be found in disturbed areas. These results have exciting implications for conservation: compatibility of vocalizations within a new vegetation structure may be a missing factor in assessments of species' tolerance for disturbance.  
Session: Virtual Talks
The Effects of Prolonged Sepration on Behavior and Cortisol Sychrony in Pair Bonded Convict Cichlids
Kiedon J. Bryant
Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

The initial goal of this study was to develop a method for inducing pair bond divorce in Convict Cichlids. Instead, this study provided insights on the correlation between cortisol synchrony and intrapair behavior. Pairs underwent 10-minute behavioral observations followed by cortisol sampling at three different stages. Treatment pairs were separated for 48-72 h between the first and second time points. All pairs initially expressed high amounts of affiliation along with high cortisol similarity. Pairs that underwent separation either divorced or maintained their pair bond. The behavior of pairs who were not separated was mirrored by pairs that stayed together. However, the cortisol of the resilient pairs became unsynchronized. Pairs that divorced showed a decrease in affiliation along with an increase in aggression. After separation, these pairs showed a negative correlation in cortisol synchrony. During the final sampling their cortisol became synchronized again but was not indicative of their behavior. This study suggests that pair bonded individuals do express cortisol synchrony and that this synching of cortisol can be interrupted and could potentially lead to pair divorce.
Session: Virtual Posters
Behavioral Misinformation on the Internet Affects Conservation Management of the Box Turtle. 
Richard Buchholz, Richard Raspet
University of Mississippi, University , Mississippi, USA

Habitat destruction leads to more frequent encounters between humans and wild animals that may move between remaining habitat fragments. Small, slow-moving species, such as the Eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina), may be "rescued" by well-meaning people concerned about the survival of individual turtles. Because this species is listed by the IUCN as Vulnerable to extinction, and loss of even a few adults is known to negatively impact population viability, management decisions about the fate of rescued box turtles is of critical importance to their conservation. Therefore, we assessed the scientific validity of the behavioral information about box turtle movement ecology that potential rescuers can find on the internet. In this presentation we present occurrence statistics for a dominant internet meme claiming that because box turtles show strong site fidelity, translocation of rescued individuals will cause them to wander endlessly. We identify the fallacy of this meme through a synthetic review of the published scientific literature on box turtle movement ecology, and also provide direction for future studies that are needed to inform box turtle management. 
Session: Their Best Interests in Mind: Conservation and Behavior
New methods reveal that Ectatomma ruidum ant colonies demonstrate poor macronutrient regulation abilities
Andrew T Burchill1, Stephen C Pratt1, Theodore P Pavlic2
1School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA, 2School of Computing and Augmented Intelligence, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA

The nutritional geometric framework (GF) posits that organisms balance their intake of macronutrients like protein and carbohydrates. Research on several ant species demonstrates that insect colonies collect consistent nutritional ratios in laboratory settings.  However, we found that Ectatomma ruidum ant colonies were relatively poor macronutrient regulators. In fact, because previous studies have only asserted regulatory behavior without a rigorous performance metric, we developed a novel "diet response gain" metric to quantify macronutrient regulation strength in GF choice experiments and contextualize our ants' performance relative to other species. We also designed a novel automated micro-RFID tag tracking system to study the long-term movements of workers in laboratory colonies at unprecedented temporal detail in multiple-macronutrient foraging assays. Earlier studies suggest well-defined specialist foragers, but we show that both workers and colonies vary in their macronutrient collection patterns, far more than explained by current foraging theories. Taken together, these results call into question the generality of previous conclusions of macronutrient regulation in ants.
Session: Allee Symposium
Singing on the Nest and Nest Predation in Northern Mockingbirds
Madison P. Burkardt, Christine M. Stracey
Guilford College, Greensboro, NC, USA

Singing on the nest (SOTN) is a behavior observed in over 60 avian species in which adult birds sing while incubating. This behavior is considered paradoxical because the sound of the adult singing could draw attention to the location of the nest, thus putting the eggs or nestlings in danger of predation. While existing literature describes SOTN, no experimental research has been published that analyzes the impact of this behavior on nest predation. To add to this body of research, we performed an artificial nest experiment on northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) nests on college campuses in Greensboro, North Carolina. Audio clips of mockingbird song were broadcasted near recently fledged nests containing artificial eggs to simulate an active nest where SOTN is present. Rates of egg predation were recorded in nests that had SOTN and were compared to nests with no song. Preliminary data from the first research season showed no significant difference in nest predation between nests with song and nests with no song. We will expand these findings with additional trials in the Spring 2022 breeding season.
Session: Poster Session 1
Picky Eaters: Generalist Bees Sample Pollen on Flowers by Ingestion Before Collection
Jenny K. Burrow1, Jacob S. Francis2, Faith E. Dall1, Michelle Bowe1, Anne Leonard3, Avery L. Russell1, Maggie M. Mayberry1
1Department of Biology, Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri, USA, 2Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, USA, 3Department of Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada, USA

Determining how animals assess food quality is fundamental to understanding foraging behavior. Generalist bees collect floral nectar and pollen, and the quality of these two foods is highly variable among plant species. Given often strong nectar and pollen preferences, bees likely assess the quality of both foods. Yet while bees assess nectar quality while ingesting it, pollen is stored externally in pollen-baskets. We investigated how bumblebees might assess pollen quality, predicting they might assess quality by ingesting small amounts while foraging. We collected foragers from the field and quantified pollen species diversity and abundance in the pollen-baskets and gut. Field results in combination with a controlled lab assay established that foragers consume pollen directly from flowers. We also found that pollen foragers were more likely to have pollen in their crops than nectar foragers and that pollen diversity was greater for pollen foragers. Our results implicate ingestion and potentially gustatory cues as mechanisms used by generalist bees to assess pollen quality, suggesting that pollen and nectar are assessed similarly, even though stored very differently.
Session: Poster Session 1
Artificial selection for weapon size and correlated evolution of fighting behavior in bulb mites
Bruno A. Buzatto
Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

The outcome of male-male fights depends on morphological aspects of their weapons, as well as physiological (stamina) and behavioral (aggressiveness or fighting skill) aspects of individual fighters. In nature, sexual selection operates simultaneously on all these components, which potentially interact in complex ways to determine the outcome of fights. In this study, I used bidirectional artificial selection on the relative size of a male weapon, and subsequently staged fights between males with different history of selection for larger or smaller weapons. The model system was the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus echinopus, a species where large males express a thickening of the third pair of legs, which are used as weapons to kill rivals. Meanwhile, small males have unmodified legs and mate with unguarded females. Observations from staged fights between fighters of up and down lines will provide evidence for whether leg width and/or selection history have effects on fight outcome. The results will also shed light on whether weapon morphology and physiological/behavioral components of fighting are genetically integrated in this species.
Session: Virtual Talks
Do eavesdropping bat predators update foraging decisions during attack flights?
Michael S. Caldwell1, Alexandra N. Yiambilis1, Zowie E. Searcy1, Rachael M. Pulica1, Rachel A. Page2, Ciara E. Kernan1,3
1Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, PA, USA, 2Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama, Panama, Panama, 3Rutgers School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Newark, NJ, USA, 4Darmouth College, Hanover, NH, USA

Foraging predators generally rely on cues produced by their prey to locate potential meals. Multiple cues are often available, however, and the predators are faced with the task of integrating these sources of information. We investigated whether fringed-lipped bats, Trachops cirrhosis, update their foraging decisions during attack flights as new cues become available. These neotropical bats eavesdrop on the calls of frogs and katydids to locate those prey. More recent calls provide better information on the current location of prey and, assuming the angular resolution of the bat's passive sound localization is constant during attack flights, closer sound sources should be localized with greater accuracy. Using playback trials in a flight cage, we tested whether wild-caught bats on route to a frog call can switch to attack a new call mid-flight, whether the accuracy of their attack is affected by switching or by the separation of the two calls, and whether localization accuracy in bats who do not switch is affected by more recent calls they ignore. We discuss our results both in the contexts of foraging predators and the evolution of prey signaling behavior.
Session: Think Twice: Predator-Prey Interactions
From whom do animals learn? A meta-analysis on model-based social learning
Andrés Camacho Alpizar, Lauren M. Guillette
Department of Psychology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Animals may copy others selectively based on particular traits of the demonstrator (e.g. social bond, age, dominant), which is thought to maximize the benefit of social learning. Such biases to copy certain individuals over others can play an important role in how social information is transmitted among individuals and influence the emergence of group-level behaviors (i.e. traditions). Two underlying factors can affect who animals copy: the population social dynamics - with whom you associate (e.g. familiar), and status of the demonstrator (e.g. dominant). We conducted a meta-analysis to answer whether demonstrator traits influence social learning, and if social dynamics-based strategies differ from status-based strategies in their influence on social learning. We extracted effect sizes from papers that used an observer-demonstrator paradigm to test how the traits of the demonstrator influenced social information use by observers. We obtained 146 effect sizes on 33 species from 56 papers. We found that demonstrator traits do influence social learning, and traits based on social dynamics had a significant effect on social learning while traits based on status did not.
Session: What is going to work? Team work!: Social Behavior
The diverse and intricate interactions between flies and amphibians: a systematic review
Leonardo L F Campos1,3, Gunnar M Kvifte2, Selvino Neckel-Oliveira1, Ximena E Bernal3,4
1Department of Ecology and Zoology, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2Faculty of Biosciences and Aquaculture, Nord University, Steinkjer, Trøndelag, Norway, 3Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA, 4Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama, Ancón, Panama

Species interactions are defined by the behavioral strategies deployed by the parties involved. However, a barrier to fully understanding the processes shaping those strategies has been the limited knowledge about the diverse and complex ways in which species can interact. Here, we performed a systematic review to examine the natural history and evolutionary ecology of the interactions between two large clades with a long evolutionary history together: Diptera and Amphibians. Beyond the well-recognized predation on flies by frogs, three main strategies have evolved multiple times within Diptera: 1) Micropredator, where adult flies feed on amphibian's blood; 2) Egg-predator, where fly larvae feed on anuran eggs; and 3) Myiasis when fly larvae live as parasites or parasitoids on adult frogs. The interactions range from opportunistic to specialized behaviors, and each strategy has distinct phylogenetic and biogeographical signatures. We identify current gaps in knowledge and fertile directions for future research addressing these complex interactions. Ultimately, this work emphasizes the intricate nature of trophic strategies that can arise between invertebrates and vertebrates.
Session: Feeling under the weather: Parasites and Disease
Daily behaviour of two baboons (H. baboon) after the death of the alpha male at Parque Safari Zoo, Chile
Hernan Cañon Jones1, Nicole Muñoz1, Victor Godoy1, Alonso Silva2
1Núcleo de Investigación Aplicada en Ciencias Veterinarias y Agronómicas, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Agronomía, Universidad de Las Américas, Santiago, Chile, 2Parque Safari, Rancagua, Chile

Animals kept in zoos often deal with changes in their social structure usually using agonistic interactions leading to poor welfare. We studied the social structure of two adult male baboons (Beto and Gabo) at Safari Park Zoo after the alpha member died. We recorded the behaviours using focal observation/all events sampling every other 10 minutes from 09:00 to 17:00 during 4 consecutive days. Frequencies were obtained and any differences were determined by analysis of variances. Vocalisations (agonistic behaviour) accounted for 21.2% of the behaviours, mainly expressed by Beto towards Gabo. Scratching (stereotypic behaviour) was expressed mainly by Gabo (25.0% of its behaviours). Behaviours such as feeding and human-animal interaction were also expressed (14.3% and 12.1% of total behaviours, respectively), and behaviours were mainly expressed in the morning. Gabo showed a preference to feed and interact with people after Beto did so (p < 0.05). The results indicate that Beto is becoming the new alpha. Finally, the results may be of importance, as they serve as a guideline when planning environmental enrichment with the aim of increasing the welfare of both individual.
Session: Virtual Posters
The mechanisms of human-dolphin cooperative foraging
Mauricio Cantor1,2,3, Damien Farine2, Fabio Daura-Jorge3
1Oregon State University, Newport, OR, USA, 2Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior, Radolfzell, BW, Germany, 3Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil

Behavioral specialisations are remarkable outcomes of animal interactions with physical and social environments. In Brazil, dolphins and artisanal fishers have been engaging in a cooperative foraging specialisation for the past 120 years, but our 12-year monitoring indicates such specialization is in decline. To predict its persistence, we need to understand how dolphins and fishers coordinate foraging efforts and how they benefit in the short- and long-term from foraging together. We simultaneously tracked interactions from above and underwater—combining photography, acoustics, overhead videos, sonar-based underwater imaging—to uncover the predators' actions, reactions and benefits of interacting. Next, we simulate environmental and behavioural changes to investigate the conditions under which this specialisation could persist. Our high-resolution empirical data show that synchrony between predators is key for their mutual benefits; our simulations suggest that losing such synchrony can push this mutualism close to extinction. Conservation actions targeting the fishers' behavior can be invaluable to safeguard this century-old cultural fishery.
Session: Virtual Talks
Behavioral and social plasticity can tell us how individuals and groups recover from social instability.
Chelsea Carminito1, Annemarie van der Marel1,2, Elizabeth A. Hobson 1
1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 2Departamento de Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile

Change is inherent to social systems. A better understanding of how social species contend with changes to or instability in their social environment could provide insight to their cognition, as well as improve applications to conservation and management. Individuals may be behaviorally plastic, and change aspects like their activity budgets, or socially plastic, and change the strength or form of their relationships. However, we do not currently have a general understanding of how quickly individuals and social groups recover from potentially stressful events, or how behavioral and social plasticity might interact. We used social group manipulation experiments to test these ideas in two groups of captive monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus). We sequentially removed a single bird then reintroduced it to the group, measuring how both individual and group responses (using social and behavioral activity budgets) recovered following the perturbations. By tracking changes in behavior in response to these perturbations we have explored the ways in which individuals alter their behavior to respond to social instability and compensate for changes in social group structure.
Session: Social Competency: An Integrative Approach to Understanding Connections Between Social Information, Decision-Making, and Cognition
Examining the potential for evolutionary divergence by describing treehopper host plant use and mating signals
Rebecca Carranza, Jennifer Hamel
Elon University, Elon, North Carolina, USA

Plant-feeding insects often serve as models for studying speciation. Many species produce substrate-borne vibrational signals on host plant species where they feed, mate, & lay eggs. Such insects sometimes change host plant species, which can result in changes to mating signals and reproductive barriers. Entylia carinata are plant-feeding insects that use multiple host plant species, but effects of plant association on their signal parameters are not well-studied. Here, we describe host plant use & vibrational mating signals for a population in the southeastern U.S. In central NC, Entylia use Cirsium altissimum throughout the growing season (month vs. presence, nymphs: χ2= 2.05, P = 0.15; adults: χ2= 0.03, P = 0.85), and they also occupy Erechtites hieraciifolius during late summer. Signal parameters of insects collected from the two host plant species did not differ (linear mixed models, all NS). However, peak frequency differed between signals recorded from early vs. late summer males collected from Cirsium (lmm: F1,11= 8.32, P = 0.01). Future research should assess the effects of developmental nutrition and plant phenology on male signal parameters & female preferences.
Session: Poster Session 1
The social lives of vampire bats
Gerald G Carter1,2
1The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA, 2Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City, Balboa Ancon, Panama

Is food sharing among vampire bats explained by reciprocity? I've spent the last 10 years trying to answer this seemingly simple question. In this talk, I'll tell the story of what we've learned so far about food sharing in common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus), what we still don't know, and what else we've learned about vampire bat social behavior. I will argue in favor of an emerging view that as stable cooperative relationships form, the categorical hypotheses of 'reciprocity' and 'pseudo-reciprocity' are better understood as continuous variables (e.g. 'responsiveness' and perceived 'interdependence') that can co-occur, interact, and change over time. Finally, I'll discuss a few counter-intuitive lessons I've learned about research, including the benefits of "thoroughly conscious ignorance", explicit uncertainty, productive failure, and the view of science as a marathon rather than a sprint.
Session: Plenary - Gerry Carter
Metabolic rate shapes differences in foraging efficiency in honeybee foragers 
Julian Cassano, Dhruba Naug
Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA

Metabolic rate (MR) is the rate at which organisms process energy and is often considered a fundamental driver of life history processes at all levels of biological organization. The link between MR and life history is primarily mediated via foraging, which shapes the energy acquisition patterns of an individual, leading to the prediction that individuals with different MR likely vary in their foraging strategies. However, such links have rarely been investigated in the context of optimal foraging theory, which can explain how and why animals maximize their foraging returns. Honeybees are known to maximize their energetic efficiency rather than the rate of energetic gain. We, therefore, investigated if individuals of low and high MR differ in terms of these foraging currencies using genetic lines of honeybees with different MR. Our results show that low MR foragers visit more flowers during a single foraging trip and have higher energetic efficiency than high MR foragers in both low and high resource conditions. We discuss the significance of these results in the context of division of labor and the adaptive role of phenotypic diversity in metabolic rate in a social insect colony.
Session: Long Live the Queen?: Insect Social Behavior
Urbanization and its effects on the colonial behaviors of Cliff Swallows
Jamie M. Casseus
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

Human activities have had numerous impacts on the health and viability of wild organisms, including direct and indirect effects on many behaviors. However, despite clear and strong social consequences for humans in cities, we know comparatively less about how rapid urbanization has shaped and is shaping the interactive and social behaviors of many urban-dwelling groups of wild animals. Colonially living vertebrate species are rare in cities, but where they do exist they provide an intriguing study subject for examining urban impacts on, for example, group size and membership, individual-level interactions, etc. We will study variation in colony size, membership, and individual behavior in cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) in relation to human and urban activities in the Phoenix metropolitan area. During the spring of 2022-2025, we will use eBird data to select colonies of various sizes and monitor group composition and dynamics, breeding output and behaviors, and long-term colony viability. Using satellite imagery, provided by CAP LTER we will quantify various forms of urban land-use, land-cover, and development and relate these to swallow colony dynamics and behaviors.
Session: Poster Session 1
Population differences in aggregation and foraging behavior in fragmented social spider colonies
Steven T. Cassidy1, Emily S. Durkin1,2, Carl N. Keiser1
1University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA, 2University of Tampa, Tampa, Florida, USA

Long-term interactions among individuals are a hallmark of animal societies, but groups rarely remain entirely stable over time. Individuals die, emigrate, or groups become spatially fragmented. Group fragmentation can alter the phenotypic composition of subgroups, which may alter the execution of collective behaviors. Over ten days, we measured the aggregation behavior and collective prey capture of experimentally fragmented social spider (Stegodyphus dumicola) colonies collected from two different populations in South Africa and Namibia. We found that subdivided colonies aggregated into a single group over time, and Namibian colonies aggregated more rapidly than South African colonies. Across both populations, colonies with higher average boldness (faster recovery time after an antagonistic stimulus) attacked prey stimuli with more participants. However, bolder colonies from South Africa attacked prey stimuli faster whereas attack speed in Namibian colonies was unaffected by colony boldness. Fragmentation events, like polydomy, are a common phenomenon in animal societies, the dynamics of which can influence how individuals interact to accomplish collective tasks.
Session: What is going to work? Team work!: Social Behavior
Multidisciplinary assessment of cumulative experience in laboratory rhesus macaques
Janire Castellano Bueno, Alexandra Paraskevopoulou, Letitia Sermin-Reed, Sam Groves, Nathan Kindred, Mathilde Jay, Aleksandra Czeszyk, Josephine Panafieu, Julie Safourcade, Susanna Carella, Chris Miller, Melissa Bateson, Colline Poirier
Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, North East, United Kingdom

Rhesus macaques are widely used in research. Welfare concern due to their extensive stays at research facilities is increasing and led to the introduction of the concept of cumulative experience (net impact of all events affecting the welfare of the animal over its lifetime).    We assessed the cumulative experience of laboratory macaques and identified any impacting factors. We used new, validated behavioural (Inactive not alert) and neuroimaging indicators of cumulative experience, and traditional indicators of welfare (body weight and alopecia). We refined the behavioural indicator to maximise its sensitivity and specificity. Neither the neuroimaging indicator nor the weight measures showed any signs of cumulative experience in the subjects. However, we found a small increase in alopecia and the frequency of the behavioural indicator over time, compared to other factors known to have a detrimental impact on welfare (i.e. single-housing). The data suggests that this latter effect is likely to be caused by experimental procedures.  This is the first study revealing a cumulative negative effect of experimental procedures on laboratory macaques.
Session: Keep me happy: Animal behavior and welfare in captivity
Behavioral responses to intraspecific competition for food in Blaberidae cockroaches.
Marcela K. Castelo
Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, IEGEBA (CONICET) - Departamento de Ecología, Genética y Evolución, Laboratorio de Entomología Experimental - Grupo de Investigación en Ecofisiología de Parasitoides y otros Insectos, Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina

The intensity of intraspecific competition for the consumption of a limiting food was characterized according to developmental stage and sex in the cockroaches Blaberus atropos and Gromphadorhina portentosa. Tests were performed with 16 combinations of status and sex of the contenders, placing two cockroaches in an arena with indivisible food. Observations of the focal individual and companion (15' at 25°C) were made, recording the times in which (1) each individual monopolized the food, (2) both fed simultaneously, and (3) neither fed. The GLMs showed that the nymphal females of B. atropos monopolize the food in greater proportion, whatever the contender. In G. portentosa, the nymphs of both sexes and the adult females share food, while the adult males tend to monopolize it in the face of any opponent. The results show that access to food in B. atropos is dominated by female nymphs, with a previously unknown hierarchical social system, in the colonies governed by sub-adult females, while in G. portentosa the success of consumption would be responding to the system of hierarchies that the males present.
Session: Poster Session 2
Foraging heuristics: are snails economically rational?
Violeta A. Castillo Angon, Eliza Middleton, Clare McArthur, Tanya Latty
The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia

Current foraging models often assume that animals make economically rational decisions, i.e., choose food items based on their absolute value. However, some species violate various principles of rationality, and instead use relative currencies. My aim is to test whether garden snails (Cornu aspersum) respect the principles of economic rationality: transitivity and independence of irrelevant alternatives. To test if they respect transitivity, I used four foods, each with the same caloric content but different carbohydrate:protein ratios. I tested preferences of snails with all six pairwise choice sets. To test if snails respected independence of irrelevant alternatives, I compared preferences from binary choices with preferences from trinary choices including a "phantom decoy" (a highly desirable but unreachable food). Economically irrational behaviour could be deployed in novel management strategies to reduce how much prey or food plants are eaten by adding a phantom decoy.
Session: Virtual Talks
The role of vocalizations in agonistic interactions during competition for roosts in a solitary bat
Christian Castillo Salazar1, Michael Schöner2, Caroline Schöner2, Gloriana Chaverri3,4
1Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, San Jose, Costa Rica, 2Zoological Institute and Museum, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany, 3Zoological Institute and Museum, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany, 4Sede del Sur, Universidad de Costa Rica, Golfito, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

K. hardwickii is a solitary bat that lives on plant structures, which are a limited resource and bats compete for them. However, it is unknown what type of vocalizations are emitted during these competition encounters for the roost and what acoustic parameters can influence who wins or loses the roost. The purpose of our research was to describe the acoustic signals during competition for roost in K. hardwickii and evaluate if the acoustic parameters have an influence on the ability of individuals to defend a roost.  We conducted roost competition experiments in a flight cage, all the vocalizations emitted during these encounters were recorded and it was analyzed which acoustic parameters had an influence on the successful defense of the roost. We found that the calls emitted by males can influence their ability to defend the roost and that entropy is the parameter that is explaining a successful defense. The high entropy suggests that encounters between individuals of K. hardwickii escalate to high levels of aggressiveness and answers the question whether calls influence the defense capacity of roosts.
Session: Can't We All Just Get Along? Agonisms and Social Behavior
​Effects of maternal condition and socioecological conditions on sex ratio in degus
Cristina Castro1, Miles Matchinske2, Sebastian Abades3, Luis Ebensperger4, Loren Hayes2
1University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA, 2University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Chattanooga, TN, USA, 3Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, RM, Chile, 4Universidad Mayor, Santiago, RM, Chile

The Trivers-Willard hypothesis predicts that differential investment in male and female offspring is based on the condition of the mother in polygynous species. In mammals, support for the Trivers-Willard hypothesis is equivocal. To test this hypothesis, we examined trends in a 15-year dataset from a wild population of degus (Octodon degus), a social rodent endemic to Chile. Degus have a low reproductive output and occur in habitats characterized by harsh ecological conditions. Male reproductive success is associated with the number of females mated, conditions that could favor differential investment in offspring. We examined whether litter sex ratios were influenced by maternal condition (body mass, anogenital distance), and socioecological conditions (group size, parasite loads). Preliminary analyses indicate that litter sex ratios were not influenced by any of these factors. We are now examining relationships between maternal condition, offspring condition, offspring mass at wean, and offspring condition during breeding. 
Session: Poster Session 1
Ground-truthing our perceptual assumptions: the role of visual ecologists in understanding how animals perceive and respond to signals

Eleanor M. Caves
University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, USA

As the neurophysiologist Vernon Mountcastle noted, though we are “linked to what is ‘out there’ by a few million fragile sensory nerve fibers…sensation is…not a replication of the real world.” Mountcastle was referring to human perception, but similarly in non-human animals, assumptions about perception based on the properties of physical stimuli and/or sensory systems provide an incomplete picture. Of particular interest to me are instances where sensory systems and visual signal form predict that animals should perceive and respond to signal variation linearly—i.e. that each change in signal magnitude results in a concomitant change in receiver response—but in which behavioral output is non-linear. I discuss two such case studies—color perception in zebra finches and spatial perception in swordtail fish—and conclude by suggesting that, as visual ecologists, we are uniquely poised to contribute to our understanding of how animals perceive signals. Both animal behavior and sensory biology have much to gain from the types of integrative studies that are conducted by visual ecologists, bringing together perspectives from sensory physiology, ecology, and behavior.
Session: Visual Ecology and Behavior: future research challenges and opportunities
Social Distancing in Lions: reasons & outcomes of sexual segregation in a group-living carnivore
Stotra Chakrabarti1,2, Joseph Bump2, Yadvendradev Jhala3, Craig Packer2
1Macalester College, Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA, 2University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA, 3Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India

Understanding sexual segregation is essential to comprehend sociality. Through a comparative analysis of demography and behavior data on lions from Serengeti and Ngorongoro in Tanzania, and Gir in India; we show that association between the sexes depend on male and female group-size, prey size and availability, and the number of female groups (/prides) that each male group currently resides. Males maintain proximity with females, while females are reluctant to associate with males except at large kills. Lions feed on the largest prey in Ngorongoro and the smallest in Gir, females spend the most time with males in Ngorongoro and the least in Gir. Females roar less often in prey-scarce environments possibly to prevent being tracked by males that parasitize on kills. Contrasting resource availability between Gir and Serengeti/Ngorongoro explain varying degrees of sexual segregation in a species where sociality was considered to be ubiquitous. Such resource mediated differences in social behavior seems to drive disparities in mating systems between these lion populations. Gir lionesses resort to promiscuity, while females in Serengeti/Ngorongoro remain fidel to the resident males.
Session: Flexible Together: Behavioral Plasticity & Sociality
Using Camera Traps to Examine Chimpanzee Behavior and Survey Biodiversity in Gishwati Forest, Rwanda
Rebecca Chancellor, Aaron Rundus, Lizzie Brost, Brian Connor, Julia Curran, Emily Dawson, Sydney Hendrixson, Daniel Lafferty, Emily Mauser, Jacob Maxwell, Mackenzie Medeck, Kaitlyn O'Brien, Ryan Phillips, Elide Reynoso
West Chester University, West Chester, PA, USA

Camera traps are increasingly being used to examine the behavioral ecology of animal populations and to evaluate taxonomic diversity. In this study, we used camera traps to document behaviors exhibited by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) living in Gishwati forest, Rwanda, and to assess the animal biodiversity of this montane rainforest remnant. We systematically deployed six cameras in the forest between July 2011-April 2014. We installed cameras in locations with environmental features we predicted would attract chimpanzees, such as trails and honeybee nests. We recorded a total of 509 videos of animals over the course of the study. We observed chimpanzees in 133 (26%) of these recordings. Our cameras captured a variety of chimpanzee behaviors, including feeding on decaying wood and foraging in a honeybee nest. In addition to our recordings of chimpanzees, we documented fifteen other bird and mammal species. The most commonly recorded species were servals (Leptailurus serval), mountain monkeys (Cercopithecus l'hoesti), and side-striped jackals (Canis adustus). Our study provides baseline data for monitoring behavior and long-term biodiversity in Gishwati forest.
Session: Poster Session 1
Testing the Assumptions of Pace-of-Life Syndromes Hypothesis: Are Life-History Traits Trading Off?
Chia-chen Chang1, Maria Moiron2, Alfredo Sánchez-Tójar3, Petri T. Niemelä4, Kate L. Laskowski1
1Department of Evolution and Ecology,University of California, Davis, California, USA, 2Institute of Avian Research, Wilhelmshaven, Wilhelmshaven, Germany, 3Department of Evolutionary Biology, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany, 4Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

The pace-of-life syndrome hypothesis is one of the major hypotheses explaining the maintenance of consistent individual differences in behavior. This hypothesis is strictly based on the assumption of negative genetic correlations among life-history traits that shape the trade-offs between living fast and slow. While estimates of genetic correlations are common in the empirical literature, the consensus of the direction of these correlations and whether they vary across taxa, sexes, and contexts is unknown. Here, we ask: is there robust evidence for negative genetic correlations among life-history traits? We performed a systematic literature review to compile empirical estimates of genetic correlations among life-history traits in animals. With these data, we test 1) for the presence and direction of genetic correlations among life-history traits and, 2) whether the magnitude of genetic correlations is moderated by specific life-history traits, taxa, sexes, or experimental contexts. 
Session: Nature AND Nuture: Genetics & Evolution
Singing contests: Inter-individual differences in calling behaviour of male Cyphoderris monstrosa
Terrence T Chang, Andrew C Mason
University of Toronto Scarborough, Scarborough, Ontario, Canada

Aggressive contests are often mediated by displays or signals that resolve the conflict prior to escalation. In order for signals to function effectively, they must contain some degree of information that consistently or reliably indicates quality of the aggressor. Cyphoderris monstrosa (Orthoptera: Haglidae) males produce a song that functions both as an advertisement call to females as well as to repel male rivals. To investigate the extent to which these acoustic signals reveal consistent individual-specific attributes, we assessed the repeatability of various song parameters. Chirp duration showed considerably high and significant repeatability (R = 0.37) while amplitude and fine duty cycle had moderate and significant repeatability (R = 0.262 and 0.207, respectively). Interpulse interval and chirp gap were not repeatable. This suggests that songs produced by males may contain reliable information to facilitate assessment and decision making during contests. However, there was no correlation between male morphological measurements and song parameters. Additionally, we found that neither size nor individual-specific song characteristics predicted success in contests.
Session: Chirps, Croaks and more! Acoustic Communication
Landing manoeuvres predict roost-site preferences in bats  
Gloriana Chaverri1,2, Marcelo Araya-Salas1, Jose Pablo Barrantes3, Tere Uribe-Etxebarria4, Marcela Peña-Acuña5, Angie Liz Varela6, Joxerra Aihartza7
1Universidad de Costa Rica, Golfito, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, 2Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Ancón, Panama, 3Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, San José, Costa Rica, 4No formal affiliation, Kristo Zeharkalea, Leioa, Spain, 5Universidad del Atlántico Medio, Tafira Baja, Las Palmas, Spain, 6No formal affiliation, Río Segundo, Alajuela, Costa Rica, 7University of the Basque Country, Sarriena, Leioa, Spain

Roosts are vital for the survival of many species, and how individuals choose one site over another is affected by various ecological factors. Biomechanical constraints could also affect roost selection, particularly in volant taxa that require sites with easy access, thereby reducing costs (i.e., predation, accidents). To date, no studies have established an association between landing performance and roost-site selection, as predicted by biomechanical constraints associated with flight. We aim to determine roost-site selection in disc-winged bats (Thyroptera tricolor), a species known to roost within developing tubular leaves. This study is coupled with various experiments that measure how a conspicuous apex affects landing tactics and performance. We show that T. tricolor prefers leaves with a longer apex, the space typically used for landing. Bats also approach and enter these leaves more consistently, increasing task performance while reducing the risk of injuries.  
Session: Flexibility it's in the air: Ecological effects & Behavioral Plasticity
Maintenance and Defense of Exclusive Roosting Areas in Spix´s Winged Bats
Silvia Chaves-Ramírez1, María Sagot2, Mariela Sánchez3, Gloriana Chaverri3,4
1Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, San Jose, Costa Rica, 2State University of New York, Oswego, New York, USA, 3Sede del Sur Universidad de Costa Rica, Golfito, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, 4Sede del Sur Universidad de Costa Rica, Golfito, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

Thyroptera tricolor is a social species highly specialized in the use of an ephemeral roost. Studies on the social dynamics of this species have focused on acoustic communication and the ecology of their roosts. Acoustic communication plays a fundamental role in the search for roosts, recognition and group stability. Groups of T. tricolor remain stable for several years and occupy specific areas for roosting. This suggests the maintenance of exclusive areas and territoriality in this species. To date this feature of their behavior has not been studied in detail. We tested territoriality in this species by determining area and overlapping roost boundaries for 11 groups of T. tricolor in the South Pacific of Costa Rica. We then performed experiments in a flight cage to identify the type of agonistic intergroup interactions related to shelter acquisition and defense. For the above, we recorded vocalizations and agonistic behaviors between focal groups that occupied a shelter and intruder groups. Preliminarily, we found that groups of T. tricolor maintain exclusive areas for roosting and use distress vocalizations as a mechanism for the maintenance and defense of these areas.
Session: Can't We All Just Get Along? Agonisms and Social Behavior
Distinct mechanisms underlying fitness consequences of social and non-social personality traits
Kathryn C. Chenard1, Anne-Laure J. Blanche1,2, Juliana R. Kosters1, Renee A. Duckworth1
1University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA, 2Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA

There is strong evidence that personality variation is maintained through fluctuating selection, yet, the mechanisms are often unclear and likely vary depending on the trait. Social personality traits may impact fitness through mediating interactions with others, while the fitness effects of non-social personality traits may vary with external environmental conditions rather than social environment. Here, we use a laboratory colony of zebra finches to investigate the mechanisms underlying variable fitness consequences of social (aggression) and non-social (fearfulness and boldness) personality traits. We found that variation in aggression was only linked to fitness when measured during naturally occurring social interactions, and not when measured in solitary trials. Moreover, fearfulness was uniformly linked to fitness across contexts with more fearful birds having lower fitness. Interestingly however, the fitness effects of fearfulness diminished with age, suggesting habituation. Finally, we did not find links between variation in boldness and fitness. Our results suggest that variation in social and non-social personality traits is likely maintained through distinct mechanisms.
Session: Influencing each other: Social Behavior
Effect of Dog-Human Relationship On Behavioural Responses To Physical Touch Over A Spectrum Of Body Regions.
Erica Cheung1, Kirsten McIlvaney1, Karen Overall2
1University of Edinburgh Royal (Dick) College of Veterinary School of Veterinary Studies, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom, 2Atlantic Veterinary College UPEI, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada

Physical touch is an important part of the dog-human relationship, but how dogs perceive touch is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the dog-human bond on dog behavioural responses to physical touch. Dog behavioural responses and observations of orientation and gaze in relationship to the handler were evaluated during handling sessions by the owner and unfamiliar handler. Dogs displayed more behaviours overall towards owner vs unfamiliar handler.  Dogs orientated towards and looked at their owner more frequently during both owner and unfamiliar handling. Results suggest a role for social referencing and the secure base effect in dog behavioural responses to handling by a stranger. Importantly, dogs appear to express more behaviours towards their owner than an unfamiliar handler. This confirms a role for the human-dog bond in dog behaviour and perception during a handling procedure. This is relevant to social interactions as well as for informing better approaches in a veterinary setting. 
Session: Virtual Talks
The Visual World of Kissing Bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae): How and When Do They Rely on Vision?
Tomás M. Chialina1, 2, Sebastián A. Minoli1, Martín Berón de Astrada2
1Laboratorio de Fisiología de Insectos, Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires - Instituto de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental y Aplicada, CONICET - UBA, Buenos Aires, CABA, Argentina, 2Laboratorio de Fisiología de la Visión, Departamento de Fisiología y Biología Molecular y Celular, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires - Instituto de Biociencias, Biotecnología y Biología Traslacional, UBA, Buenos Aires, CABA, Argentina

Kissing bugs are nocturnal haematophagous insects responsible for the transmission of Chagas disease in Latin America. Vision and associated behaviors have been feebly studied in these insects, probably due to their nocturnal habits. However, they possess well-developed compound eyes as well as big ocelli, facts that suggest vision is not a neglected sense in their lives. Despite this, we do not know much about the relevance of vision in their daily life nor about its sensitivity and resolution. Our final aim is to understand how these insects perceive their visual environment and when vision is relevant for them. Working with two species of triatomines, Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma infestans, we have studied their escape response to a virtual looming object that is manipulated in size, speed, position, color and intensity. We found that animals escape from the visual stimulus by either increasing their walking speed while fixating the object with an angle of 90°-150° from the screen, or freezing. Our results show firstly, that triatomines are highly visually responsive animals and secondly, that the current methodology paves the way to investigate their visual system further. 
Session: Virtual Posters
Understanding Kangaroo Rat Habitat Use to Improve Conservation Outcomes
Rachel Y. Chock1, Debra M. Shier1,2
1San Diego Zoo Wildlife Alliance, Escondido, CA, USA, 2University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Habitat loss and fragmentation are leading causes of species declines around the globe. Habitat restoration can help mitigate these losses, but often animals do not use restored areas in the same way as they do intact habitat. Experimentally assessing behavioral response to various restoration techniques can help identify the most appropriate management strategies. Multiple species of kangaroo rats in southern California, USA, are at risk from habitat loss due to development, invasive grasses, and changing natural disturbance regimes. We characterized the habitat features in extant populations of endangered kangaroo rats, and tested various restoration techniques to meet these habitat targets. Through experimental translocation, we can observe their response to multiple restoration treatments by tracking movement and settlement decisions. Evaluating a behavioral rather than demographic response to restoration can minimize negative impacts of the experimental manipulation on endangered species, and provide clear conservation management alternatives.
Session: Their Best Interests in Mind: Conservation and Behavior
The mechanisms behind noise's influence on the processing of antipredator-related stimuli
Trina Chou, Mark Fossesca, Anjali Krishna, Avani Desai, Megan Gall
Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY, USA

Maintaining antipredator behaviors are an important aspect of survival for many animals, and some species such as the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) have even developed complex communication systems to appropriately respond to predators. These communication systems can be influenced by external factors, such as natural or anthropogenic noise. Anthropogenic noise in particular has the potential to impair responses through either masking or distraction. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, we employed a repeated measures field experiment in which we presented chickadees and their related flockmates with a visual predator stimulus or an auditory mobbing call stimulus with or without anthropogenic noise. We integrated data from both approach responses and recorded vocalizations to test the hypotheses directly against each other. By doing this, we can further elucidate the mechanisms behind anthropogenic noises' role in antipredator contexts. This work has the potential to help us understand how environmental contexts affect general animal behavior. 
Session: Virtual Posters
Ripple effects of urban environmental characteristics on cognitive processes in Eurasian red squirrels.
Pizza Ka Yee Chow1,2,3, Kenta Uchida1,4, Itsuro Koizumi1
1Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan, 2University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 3University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom

Urban environmental characteristics like direct human disturbance induce a double-edged sword effect on wildlife's ability to solve novel problems. Hypothetically, these characteristics would continue to affect related cognitive processes (the 'ripple effect hypothesis'). We tested this hypothesis in urban Eurasian red squirrels who had previously learned a successful solution for a food-extraction problem (the innovators). Two food-extraction problems, with one problem assessing the generalisation process using a similar but novel problem, and another problem examining their memory for the learned solution of the original problem. The innovators improved their solving latency early on in the generalisation problem. They also quickly recalled the learned solution in the memory test. Urban environmental characteristics did not affect the innovators' ability to solve either problem, but some characteristics like direct human disturbance enhanced the innovators' learning speed in the generalisation problem and recall speed in the memory test. These results highlight that some urban environmental characteristics have induced a far-reaching impact on the evolution of cognition.
Session: Virtual Talks
A meta-analysis of habitat complexity and behavior for territorial and non-territorial animals
Kathleen Church1, Jean-Michel Matte2, James Grant2
1University of Quebec at Outaouais, St Jerome, Quebec, Canada, 2Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Adding physical structure to habitats increases population density for territorial species in the wild and reduces aggression in captivity, but it is unknown if all territorial species, and non-territorial species, are similarly affected. A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the behavior of a wide range of territorial and non-territorial species in complex and open habitats. The effects of habitat complexity on 1) territory size, 2) population density, 3) aggression, 4) foraging behavior, 5) activity, 6) shyness/boldness, 7) survival, and 8) exploration were assessed. All variables were affected by habitat complexity, but territorial and non-territorial species differed.  Territorial species were less aggressive, had smaller territories and higher densities in complex habitats, whereas non-territorial species were more aggressive. Territorial species were bolder in complex habitats, whereas non-territorial species were more active. The survival of non-territorial species, but not territorial species, increased in complex habitats. Territorial and non-territorial animals appear to respond differently to habitat complexity, possibly due to their stronger reliance on visual cues.
Session: Virtual Talks
Do free-ranging dogs match human preferences?
Giulia Cimarelli1, Magdelena Juskaite1,2, Friederike Range1, Sarah Marshall-Pescini1
1Domestication Lab, Konrad Lorenz Institute of Ethology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden

Domestic dogs have lived alongside humans for thousands of years. Social learning can be a mechanism allowing dogs to thrive in human-dominated environments. While pet dogs have been shown to be able to learn from humans, no studies on free-ranging (not-owned) dogs have been conducted so far. Free-ranging dogs live in a complex environment where learning from humans (e.g. about the location of food) could be advantageous. To understand whether free-ranging dogs are influenced by humans in their foraging choices, we conducted a field experiment in which two food-containing boxes of different colours were presented to the dogs. We tested N=30 dogs living on the streets of Morocco (Souss-Massa region) in a novel foraging task. Dogs either witnessed an unfamiliar human showing a preference for one of the two boxes (i.e. by approaching and eating from it) or received no demonstration (control group). Preliminary results show that while dogs of the control group showed no preference for one of the two boxes, almost 70% of dogs witnessing the human demonstration chose the human-preferred box, suggesting that humans can influence dogs' foraging choices.
Session: Learning is the way, or is it? Cognition and Learning
Detection Range of Long-Distance Calls of Borneo's Apes and Implications for Passive Acoustic Monitoring
Dena Jane Clink1, Amrit Hingorani1, Gabriel Bohn1, Abdul Hamid Ahmad2, Siti Maimunah3,4, Tatang Mitra Setia5, Bernat Ripoll Capilla6, Erik Estrada7, Rido 7, Russell A. Charif1, Holger Klinck1, Wendy M. Erb1
1Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA, 2Universiti Malaysia Sabah , Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia, 3Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya, Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, 4INSTIPER Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 5Universitas Nasional, Jakarta, Indonesia, 6Borneo Nature Foundation, Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, 7Yayasan Borneo Nature Indonesia, Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

Interest in the use of passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) in tropical forests has exploded in recent years, where acoustic monitoring of cryptic yet vocal animals is often easier and more cost-effective than visual surveys. However, to make effective decisions about study design, it is crucial to know the detection range of the signal of interest. Detection ranges can be influenced by multiple factors including recorder settings, ambient noise, weather, topography, and vegetation, as well the source level and frequency range of the sounds themselves. Here, we use playback experiments of long calls recorded from four Bornean ape taxa (two gibbons and two orangutans) at two locations (Sabah and Central Kalimantan) to estimate propagation loss and detection range of all calls at each site. Our objectives are to: 1) compare propagation loss across habitats, animal taxa, call note types, and times of day, 2) evaluate variation in background noise across habitats, frequency ranges, and times of day, and 3) estimate detection ranges of ape calls. Based on these results, we present recommendations for PAM survey design in tropical forests.
Session: Bioacoustics in Tropical Forests
Variation in Female Mate Preferences and the "Signal Reliability" Hypothesis
Nicole E. Cobb, Sam M. Mason, Keith B. Tompkins, Meredith Fitschen-Brown, Molly R. Morris
Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, USA

Female mate preferences result in sexual selection, an important evolutionary driver of biological diversity. However, examining variation in mate preference can reveal what drives the evolution of mate preferences. This project explored the "signal reliability" hypothesis which suggests female mate preferences vary across environments in relation to the reliability of the information preferred traits provide in those same environments. By determining if female preferences are stronger for females reared in the environment where male traits are more reliable, it can be determined if "signal reliability" is a factor that drives the evolution of mate preferences.
Session: Virtual Posters
Putting the Best Foot Forward: Limb Lateralization in the Goffin's Cockatoo
Jennifer A. D. Colbourne1, Léo Hanon2, Irene M. Pepperberg3, Alice M. I. Auersperg1
1University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France, 3The Alex Foundation, Cambridge, MA, USA

Very few species are limb lateralized to the same degree as human handedness. Yet nearly every species of cockatoo shows extreme levels of "footedness," with most members exhibiting a consistent preference for the use of the left foot when feeding. In our sample of nine Goffin's cockatoos (Cacatua goffiniana), we investigated whether tasks with different physical requirements and cognitive complexity affected footedness. In line with previous research, we found in our baseline task that 86% of the Goffin's cockatoos were left-footed when holding and consuming a food item. The subjects were subsequently given simple and complex versions of a food extraction task, a string-pulling task and a reaching task. Our results indicate that posture may be the most influential factor affecting foot use, as most of the cockatoos changed from their dominant preferred foot in the reaching tasks which required precarious balancing on one foot, including the right-footed cockatoos. We discuss these findings in light of the predictions made by MacNeilage's postural origins hypothesis and Roger's enhanced cognition hypothesis.
Session: Rack your brain: Behavioral Plasticity & Cognition
Neural basis of turn-taking in the duetting plain-tailed wren
Melissa J Coleman1, Nancy Day2, Eric Fortune3
1Scripps College, Claremont, California, USA, 2Whitman College, Walla Walla , Washington, USA, 3New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey, USA

Plain-tailed wrens live on the slopes of the Andes in Ecuador. Female and male wrens coordinate alternation of their syllables so precisely it sounds as if a single bird is singing. To understand the neural basis of this turn-taking behavior, my collaborators and I conducted research at remote field sites in Ecuador. Initial field audio recordings revealed that female and male wrens sing solo and duet song. The basic pattern of syllables in solo song was similar to that during duets, but the inter-syllable interval timing was altered. This suggested the brain of each bird produced the pattern for song, and that auditory feedback from the partner modulated the timing of the pattern. To determine if this was the case, we made wireless, electrophysiological recordings from pairs of wrens while they sang duets. We found that neurons in a specific area of the brain, HVC, were active when the bird was singing, and were inhibited while the bird listened to its partner. That is, the timing of the ongoing motor pattern was inhibited by input from the partner. Therefore, this cooperative, turn-taking behavior is produced by a single neural circuit that is shared across two individuals.
Session: Bridging Brain and Behavior in the Americas
Beyond latencies: multiple measures of neophobia in the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos)
Dave J. Colucci, Anne B. Clark
Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, USA

Neophobia is often quantified as the increase in feeding latency after a novel object is added to a feeding site. While useful, latency cannot reveal competing motivations or other ecologically relevant responses. The latency of an unmarked group to feed will reflect the least neophobic individual, but not group dynamics or within-group variation. Here, we attempt to overcome these issues in 20 crow families by analyzing movement and feeding probability. Behavior was measured in three baseline trials with food alone, and in one trial with food and a novel object. In baseline trials, most trips to the experimental area ended in feeding and most crows fed at least once. Increased family size resulted in more trips to the experimental area but did not increase the amount of time spent there. The novel object decreased the number of crows that fed and the proportion of time spent near the food. More trips to the experimental area ended without feeding, but the mean duration of a trip was unchanged. These results suggest low competition among family members, variation in novelty response, and prolonged interaction by some crows that may reflect curiosity as well as fear.
Session: Virtual Posters
Eat like a bird: How zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) behaviorally and physiologically cope with hunger
Devon Comito, Allegra D. Estrada, Mattina M. Alonge, George E. Bentley
University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA

In the wild food availability can be unpredictable. Since animals have a finite amount of energy that can be used at any one time, food is a priority for survival, and food stress can result in pronounced physiological and behavioral changes. When not enough food is available, life history theory suggests animals will prioritize survival at the expense of non-essential processes, such as reproduction. This study looks at the effects of food stressors on behavior and physiology in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), an opportunistically breeding songbird. After 6 hours, food limitation alone results in an increase in activity and foraging behavior. However, what happens when an animal is presented with a compound stressor? How does food quality affect behavior? We find that birds respond differently to food stress when they are simultaneously dealing with another challenge such as sickness or cold stress. Furthermore, differences in food quality result in clear behavioral and reproductive changes. This research provides insight into the evolution of behavioral and physiological coping mechanisms that animals use to deal with environmental challenges.
Session: Poster Session 1
Interactive and therapeutic play may lead to lasting reduction in cortisol in shelter dogs
Elizabeth Congdon1, Eden Hines1, Jessica Owens2
1Bethune-Cookman University, Daytona Beach, FL, USA, 2Unleashed Training, Inc, Daytona Beach, FL, USA

Animal shelters in the Unitied States are often overrun with 'bully breeds' like pit bull and boxer mixes. Although these dogs can be wonderful pets, they are the last to get adopted due to misconceptions about their temperment. This trend  leads to longer stays in the shelter and creates a positve feedback loop that is anything but positive. To address the health and wellness of these dogs and improve their chances of adoption, we tested enrichment with several toys and types of play. The most successful by far was a therapeutic toy based on the principles of occupationsl therapy for humans. Individual dogs showed less jumping and nipping at the handler, more relaxed kennel behavior, and a greater tendency to engage in play on their own. These positive results led us to the current study of whether this is mimmicked in physiology and lasting behavioral changes. Salivary cortisol levels and a standardized behaviroal assessment were done before and after dailly play with the Calmr Therapeutic Dog Toy for a minimum of seven days. We are hoping that these results will enable us to develop large scale recommendations for shelters to shorten the stay or return of large dogs.
Session: Keep me happy: Animal behavior and welfare in captivity
Conspecific and Heterospecific Effects on Calling Complexity in Carolina Chickadees (Poecile carolinensis)
Brittany A. Coppinger1,2, Austin Montgomery1,3, Arik Kershenbaum4, Jeffrey R. Lucas5, Kathryn E. Sieving6, Todd M. Freeberg1
1University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA, 2Villanova University, Villanova, PA, USA, 3Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA, 4University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 5Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA, 6University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA

The social complexity hypothesis states greater social complexity of groups requires greater communicative complexity. Carolina chickadees are used for experimental tests of this hypothesis because of their affinity to form social groups and their open-ended, multi-note calling system. In these birds, larger conspecific groups communicate with greater complexity than smaller conspecific groups. Additionally, chickadees, which occur naturally in mixed-species flocks, are often influenced by heterospecific flockmate presence (specifically, tufted titmice). However, there has been no explicit test of this hypothesis regarding heterospecific group size. Here we experimentally tested for con- and heterospecific group size effects on communicative complexity in flocks of Carolina chickadees and tufted titmice. We found that in small conspecific groups, more heterospecifics result in less communicative complexity compared to fewer heterospecifics. In larger conspecific groups, however, more heterospecifics result in increased communicative complexity. Social complexity should be defined as more than conspecific group size, especially for species that often interact with other species.
Session: Virtual Talks
Using Crop Season and Moon Phase to Predict Elephant Crop Raiding in Southern Kenya
Sophia C. Corde1, Lynn Von Hagen2, Simon Kasaine3, Mwangi Githiru3, Bernard Amakobe3, Urbanus Mutwiwa4, Bruce A. Schulte1
1Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky, USA, 2Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, USA, 3Wildlife Works, Voi, Kenya, 4Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya

Lunar cycle and crop season influence animal behavior. Understanding these influences can help mitigate human-wildlife conflict (HWC). In the Kasigau Wildlife Corridor of southern Kenya, nocturnal crop raiding by elephants is a major form of HWC. Since 2017, our Elephants and Sustainable Agriculture in Kenya project has sought to predict and reduce crop raiding. We investigated the presence of elephants in relation to moon phase and readiness of crops for harvest. Higher elephant presence around crop fields was hypothesized to have a negative relationship with lunar light levels and a positive relationship with completion of the crop season. To test these hypotheses, we acquired data on elephant presence from camera traps and analyzed using GLMM. Elephants were present significantly less during the full, gibbous, and waxing moon phases and significantly more during the new, crescent, and waning phases. Elephants were also more prevalent as harvest approached. Understanding how elephant behavior varies regarding these factors can help farmers better prepare mitigation strategies. Our findings may also have broader applications in policy creation and mitigation of other forms of HWC.
Session: Virtual Talks
Dominance and paternity in male mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata)
Lisa C. Corewyn1, Kari A. Brossard Stoos1, Mary A. Kelaita2
1Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY, USA, 2St. Philip's College, San Antonio, TX, USA

The priority of access model predicts that male primates should be dominant to monopolize access to fertile females and increase reproductive success; however, the positive relationship between rank and paternity is not consistently demonstrated, particularly in species such as mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) where females mate polyandrously. We collected behavioral data on 9 adult males in 2 large A. palliata groups (G2 & G12) at La Pacifica, Costa Rica from Jan-Dec 2010. Males in both groups formed linear dominance hierarchies. Dominance was based on agonistic interactions between dyads and calculated using David's score. We collected fecal samples noninvasively from all adult males and 22 immatures in both groups and genotyped them using 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We confidently assigned paternity for 17/22 offspring in CERVUS. Preliminary results varied between groups: in G2 the lowest-ranking male sired the most offspring (40%), but in G12 the alpha sired the most offspring (70%). These data suggest that while dominant males may father a higher percentage of offspring in some groups, subordinates are able to successfully employ alternate mating tactics.
Session: No pain, no mate: Sexual Selection and Alternative Tactics
Human infant cries communicate distress: Cross cultural evidence  
Clément Cornec1, Nicolas Mathevon 1, Katarzyna Pisanski 1,5, Don Entani2, Claude Monghiemo2, Blanchard Bola3, Victor Planas-Bielsa 4, David Reby1, Florence Levréro1
1Equipe Neuro-Ethologie Sensorielle ENES /CRNL, University of Saint-Etienne, CNRS UMR5292, Inserm UMR_S 1028, Saint étienne, France, 2NGO Mbou-Mon-Tour, Kinshasa, Congo-Kinshasa, 3Hospital of Tshumbery, Tshumbery, Congo-Kinshasa, 4Centre Scientifique de Monaco, Département de Biologie Polaire, Monaco, Monaco, 5Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire Dynamique du Langage, Lyon, France

The degree to which culture contributes to variability in ostensibly evolved human behaviours is a critical and complex scientific question. To examine the generalisability of the communicative functions of human infant cries across disparate cultures, we thus explored their production and perception in remote rural communities in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Combining acoustic analysis of Congolese baby cries recorded in natural discomfort (bath) and pain (vaccine) contexts with psychoacoustic experiments on Congolese adult listeners, we show that distress is reliably encoded in and decoded from cries. Yet, despite the absence of sexual dimorphism in cry acoustics, low-pitched cries are more often perceived as produced by boys than girls, and cries experimentally attributed to boys are perceived as expressing more distress than those same cries experimentally attributed to girls, replicating earlier results in a European sample. This research offers compelling evidence that the robust voice-based stereotypes observed in European cultures generalise to a highly distinct population, and could thus, indeed, represent human universals.
Session: Virtual Talks
Is the Streak-backed oriole using fungus in the nest to repel aggressive acacia ants?
Rhayza Cortes-Romay1, Sabrina Amador-Vargas2
1Unidad de Ecología Terrestre-Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz, La Paz, Bolivia, 2Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Ancón, Distrito de Panamá, Panama

Trees protected by ants create spaces free of enemies that can be used by some organisms. For example, we can observe Icterus pustulatus (Ictaridae) that builds its nest on cornizuelo trees (Vachellia collinsii) that have poisonous ants (Pseudomyrmex spinicola), and for the construction of the nest threads of the horsetail fungus (Marasmioid rhizomorphs) are mainly used. We want to understand if the use of horsetail fungus can help birds deter aggressive ants during nesting. We conducted experiments on the behavior of ants in the presence of the fungus (dry and wet), and grass. We filmed for one minute the behavior of the ants in front of the treatments. We observed that the ants show a very marked repellency behavior with the marasmioid: they repeatedly grooming, retreat or have anomalous behavior, this is more frequent when fungus is wet. It is possible that the effect of fungus on ants allows I. pustulatus to nest in these trees, gaining protection from the fungus against the ants and protection from the ants against other predators. This study may improve our understanding of this multispecies interaction (birds, trees, ants, and fungi) through animal behavior experiments
Session: Feeling under the weather: Parasites and Disease
Zoo Gorillas Show Little Response to Absence of Visitors During the Pandemic
Cathleen R Cox, Joan I Mead, Jill Werner
Los Angeles Zoo and Botanical Gardens, Los Angeles, California, USA

Zoo visitors may impact animals differently depending on the species, the habitats in which they reside, and their individual histories.  The pandemic resulted in zoo closures and provided the opportunity to compare behavior of animals with and without the presence of visitors.  We assessed the behavior of two groups of gorillas housed at the Los Angeles Zoo from November 2019 through June 2021.  During the study there were two zoo closures which were sandwiched between three open periods.  The two gorilla groups were very different from each other as the "family group" was rearing a youngster while in the "bachelor group" an adolescent male was in the process of establishing his presence.  Despite their differences, both groups showed the importance of interactions among gorillas and, with the exception of the one female who had been nursery reared, both groups had little response to the lack of zoo visitors.  Because the study includes two closure periods that were separated by nearly 4 months it is clear that changes in behavior were more strongly related to increasing gorilla maturity and time spent with other group members rather than to the presence or absence of visitors.
Session: Virtual Posters
Social and Environmental Influences on Baboon Offspring Survival
Maria J.A. Creighton1, Elizabeth C. Lange1, Jenny Tung1,2, Elizabeth A. Archie3, Jeanne Altmann4, Susan C. Alberts1
1Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA, 2Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Saxony, Germany, 3University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, USA, 4Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA

Both the physical and social environment present unique challenges and opportunities for social animals. Determining how these challenges and opportunities contribute to individual survival and fitness is key to elucidating why sociality evolves. Using data from a 50-year longitudinal field study, we explore the predictors of infant survival for a population of wild baboons in the Amboseli basin of Kenya. We use an automated model selection approach to ask which conditions in an animal's social environment (characterized by group size and bond strength) and physical environment (characterized by rainfall and temperature) have the greatest predictive power when it comes to determining i) which infants survive to one year of age and ii) whether a mother experiences a fetal loss. We also include interactions between variables characterizing the social and physical environments, to test the idea that the survival benefits of sociality are more pronounced in challenging environments. Our results provide novel insights into the major constraints on fitness for wild animal populations and have implications for our understanding of social evolution.
Session: For the love of others: Social evolution and behavior
Does plastics presence in the nest influence mother and offspring condition in the Western Bluebird?  
Cecilia Cuatianquiz Lima1,3, América Hernández1, Alejandro Hernández-Martínez2, Bibiana Montoya1
1Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala, Mexico, 2Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, México, Mexico, 3Instituto para la Conservación de la Cordillera Neovolcánica ante el Cambio Climático, A.C., Toluca, Estado de México, Mexico

In birds, nest building using various materials provides the conditions required for the development and survival of eggs and chicks, but this activity can be costly. In this work, we evaluated whether the type of nesting material used in nest boxes is related to the condition of the parents and offspring, as well as the survival probability of offspring. We used as a study model the Western bluebird (Sialia mexicana). We quantified the type and weight of the nesting materials used by each pair, in addition to the load of arthropods present at the end of the reproductive event. We expected that a greater amount of material of anthropogenic origin and a greater load of arthropods would be negative for mothers and offspring. We found that the nests are made primarily of plant material, followed by feathers, plastic, and hair. Females with more corticosterone use less plastic and nests with more plastic have chicks with greater tonic immobility. However, we did not find any relationship between plastic and corticosterone levels in the young. cecilia.cuatianquiz.l@uatx.mx
Session: Poster Session 1
Acoustic Adaptation Hypothesis does not support the occurrence of common songs in urban bird populations.
Luis/F Cueva1,2, Luis/A Sandoval2
1Programa de Posgrado en Biología,Sistema de Estudios de Posgrado, Universidad de Costa Rica, San pedro, San José, Costa Rica, 2Laboratorio de Ecología Urbana y Comunicación Animal, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, San José, Costa Rica

The Acoustic Adaptation Hypothesis (AAH) indicates that vocalizations will have frequencies that maximize their transmission within the habitat where they are produced. Therefore, it is expected that vocalizations of the same species vary between habitats, if the habitats vary in structure. We conducted a sound transmission experiment to determine if the common songs of Melozone leucotis, a bird with isolated populations within the urban areas of Costa Rica, differ between populations because they are adapted to the characteristics of each habitat and maximize their transmission. The experiment was done in five populations with different habitats: secondary forests, coffee plantations, two types of gardens and thickets. In each population we reproduced the three most common songs of each population and we compared four song degradation measures (excess attenuation, blur ratio, signal-to-noise ratio and tail-to-signal ratio). Our results contradicted the HAA, since, the most common songs of each population were not transmitted better in their own habitat. Thus, the common songs of this bird may be being maintained by female selection.            
Session: Poster Session 1
Sexual Conflict, more than complexity, leads to the development of greater social discrimination in swordtails
Molly E Cummings1, Phillip Queller1, Ross DeAngelis1, Vural Yurt1,2, Kelly Wallace1,3, Kiyara Martinez1, Claire Marrone1, Luke Reding1, Yasmin Shirali1,4
1Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA, 2HAS University of Applied Sciences, s-Hertognbosch, Netherlands, 3Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA, 4Texas Department of State Health Services, Austin, TX, USA

How savvy we are in responding to social cues is often determined by prior social experiences. But what kind of experiences shape our social cognition characteristics the most? Using a fish species with unique social attributes, Xiphophorus nigrensis, we test two competing theories (social complexity vs sexual conflict) for the development of social cognition.  We conducted rearing experiments with female swordtails for over a year (from birth to adulthood) and manipulated exposure to a range of different mating interactions (courtship only, coercion only, or different combinations). At adulthood, we used animations with novel male phenotypes to test females in a social discrimination task. Females from the coercion only treatment group showed the greatest level of social discrimination; whereas the complexity of social experiences influenced how females approached social decisions. Our research enables us to identify the social factors that contribute to the development of adult behavior, cognitive abilities, and (ultimately) the social forces that shape the circuitry of the vertebrate brain.
Session: Growing Smart: Development and Cognition
Quality of life and its relationship with negative emotional states of Sapajus nigritus in captivity
Erika Z.F Cunha 1, Fábio L.G Góes 2, Gelson Genaro 3, Nei Moreira 1
1Universidade Federal do Paraná , Curitiba , PR, Brazil, 2Klabin , Telêmaco Borba , PR, Brazil, 3Centro Universitário Barão de Mauá , Ribeirão Preto , SP , Brazil, 4Universidade Federal do Paraná , Curitiba , PR , Brazil

Animals have emotional needs. Several scales are used to evaluate quality of life in medicine and human psychology; however, their use is not common in Zoology. This study assessed stress levels and quality of life among capuchin monkeys by using behavioral tests and biological markers of stress. The experiment was conducted in Telêmaco Borba, Paraná, Brazil, using adult females (n=3) and males (n=8), with ages ranging between two and eight years old. The biological evaluation of stress was carried out with seven serum stress markers (albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), blood count, cholesterol, and cortisol). The behavioral evaluation was performed using a psychometric scale adapted from the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. The quality of life questionnaire was applied to three zookeepers and included questions related to physical health, stress, and coping, social relations, psychological stimulation, and positive and negative indicators of quality of life. These results may help to develop quality of life assessment tools to identify stress signs in capuchin monkeys in captivity.
Session: Poster Session 2
Phenotypic effects of the trophic environment in the facultative parasitic blowfly, Lucilia cuprina
Vanessa Cunha1, Sophie Tandonnet1, Gabriela S. Zampim2, Patricia J Thyssen2, Tatiana T. Torres1
1University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2University of Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil

One of the greatest challenges in biology is to understand complex phenotypes, and how they interact with the environment. Trophic habits are complex phenotypes that might be influenced by environmental changes. Some blowflies have a trophic habit alternating between parasitism and necrophagy. Here, we tested the effect of developmental substrate on phenotypes in a facultative parasitic blowfly, Lucilia cuprina. We reared them on either fresh or rotten substrates. We tested how the substrates affect behavior (female oviposition site and larval feeding preferences) and gene expression over generations. Larvae and females were able to choose among four options: fresh or rotten meat at 25C or 33C. Larvae have a fixed preference for rotten substrate at 25C, and females show no preference for fresh or rotten while preferring to lay eggs at 25C. Larvae and females showed differentially expressed genes between rearing substrates. We show that the developmental environment does not affect behavior but greatly affects gene expression. Thus, different environments affect trophic habits, probably changing expression of genes related to substrate use and metabolism necessary for survival.
Session: Poster Session 1
Thermal Properties of Eggshells and Avian Nesting Ecology
LB D'Alba1,2, MD Shawkey2
1Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, Netherlands, 2University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium

The vibrant colors of bird eggs have amazed scientist for centuries. Colors have evolved for crypsis, species recognition or for photoprotection. The effect of coloration on thermoregulation is important for avian eggs because embryo survival depends on maintenance of a narrow range of temperatures. Dark eggs heat up more relative to lighter eggs but we still know little about the photothermal properties of eggs beyond the visible wavelengths of light. Yet, half of solar radiation reaching earth is in the near infrared (700-2500 nm). Here, I measured reflectance of eggshells from a diverse set of bird species ranging in nesting ecologies to investigate the relationship between egg exposure to solar radiation and UV-visible and NIR eggshell reflectance. I found that there is larger variation in egg reflectance in this part of the spectrum than previously realized and this variation seems to be associated with the level of exposure of eggs to solar radiation and nesting ecology. These results suggest a very important role of egg reflectance (both within and beyond visible color) on thermoregulatory function in birds and how they might respond to changes in their thermal environment.
Session: Poster Session 2
Eggs as sources of communication in wasp societies
Rafael C da Silva1, Tom Wenseleers2, Cintia A Oi2,3, Fabio S do Nascimento1
1University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, 2University of Leuven, Leuven, Flemish Region , Belgium, 3University College London, London, United Kingdom

The ability to recognize adult nestmates is a common feature among social insects. Conversely, whether adult females have the same skills to recognize brood is still poorly explored. Chemical compounds play an important role in the recognition processes. The ability to recognize between friends from foes minimizes the exploitation of resources. Firstly, we demonstrate whether eggs could play an alternative communicative role in nests of social wasps by studying their chemical surface. Secondly, we experimentally tested whether females of Mischocyttarus cerberus could recognize their eggs over the eggs of foes. Overall, our results show that eggs could potentially play a role as an alternative source of communication once they are highly chemical divergent. Besides that, we show that females of M. cerberus removed eggs according to their origin. We discuss that chemical cues present on the surface of eggs may be important for them to be accepted or removed, and these cues may be relevant to avoiding parasitism. Altogether, our results reinforce that the nestmate recognition ability is not restricted to recognizing adult relatives, but it is also extended to recognizing brood.
Session: Group chat: Communication and Social Behavior
What does Polly Say? A survey of vocal variation in pet parrots.
Christine R Dahlin1, Tahais Guerrero2, Brockington Tahais2, Benedict Lauryn2
1University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown, Johnstown, PA, USA, 2University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO, USA

Parrots are one of the rare taxa with the life-long ability to learn vocalizations. However, parrots are difficult to study in the wild since they live high in trees, often match the canopy, and roam widely. They are also beloved companion animals and pets; thus pet parrots are an invaluable source of data. We tapped into this dataset by asking parrot owners about the number of sounds, words and phrases parrots use, as well as questions about context and improvisation. Of the 877 good responses we received, we focused on 19 species for which we had >10 individuals. Species differed significantly in repertoire sizes and likelihood to improvise (P< 0.05). For most species, repertoire size was similar between males and females. Five species presented exceptions, and in 4 species, males had larger repertoires. Most species provided an insufficient sample size for testing an age effect, but in African grays we found that repertoire size increases between the ages of 0-4, but not beyond that age.  Our data can provide valuable insights into vocal abilities of species that are difficult to observe in the wild, leading to testable hypotheses for the future.  
Session: Virtual Posters
Fine-tuning Shoaling for Functional Manipulation in Threespined Stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus
Usan Dan1, Alison M. Bell1,2,3
1Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA, 2Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Behaviour, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA, 3Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA

Recent advances in technology have made functional manipulation through viral-mediated transgenesis a possibility in an increasing number of non-traditional model organisms, including threespined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. As such, behavioural assays now need to be modified to accommodate behavioural changes brought about by functional manipulation; not only do assays need to reliably elicit behaviour, they also need to be able to demonstrate and measure changes in the behaviour of interest. In this study, we tested two shoaling assays for their ability to elicit shoaling behaviour and the repeatability of behavior in the assays. Then, we tested several modifications to the shoaling assay that was more successful at eliciting shoaling behaviour, to fine-tune it for use in an experiment that tests candidate genes related to shoaling. We show that the final form of the assay successfully elicits a moderate amount of shoaling behaviour, with the possibility to show both measurable increases and decreases in behaviour. We will also discuss considerations for controls, data interpretation, and some unexpected findings.  
Session: Poster Session 2
Signaling in islands: The case of Lilford's wall lizard from Dragonera
Ferran de la Cruz, Guillem Pérez i de Lanuza, Enrique Font
University of Valencia, Valencia, Valencia, Spain

Studies of the effects on insularity on the design of animal signals are scarce, particularly in lizards. Here we use Lilford's wall lizard from Dragonera (Podarcis lilfordi gigliolii) to ask how insularity has affected its repertoire of social signals relative to mainland Podarcis. We focused on two visual signals shared by many Podarcis: UV-blue patches (UBP) and visual displays. The latter include foot shakes and the raised body displays used to expose the UBP. We examined if the number or spectral characteristics of the UBP are associated with morphological traits related to individual quality. We also used visual models to measure sexual dichromatism in the UBP. We did not observe foot shakes or any other visual displays. The UBP did not covary with body condition or fighting ability in males, suggesting that this coloration does not signal individual quality. We also found very little sexual dichromatism, females having male-like UBP. We hypothesize that this pattern of reduced social signaling is due to the high population density of P. lilfordi gigliolii, which discourages territorial behavior and promotes extreme social tolerance, making most social signals unnecessary.
Session: Virtual Talks
Teaching in capuchin monkeys? The effect of the presence of an audience in nut-cracking behavior  
Bruna de Sá, Briseida Resende
University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Teaching in non-human animals is defined as the modified behavior occuring in the presence of a naive audience in order to facilitate learning. Evidences of teaching are rare and restricted to a few taxa. Social learning in nut-cracking behavior by capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp) has been extensively studied, but teaching has not. Here, we fill this gap by analyzing nut-cracking events by capuchin monkeys in an urban park in Brazil. We watched 794 min of footage and transcribed the nut-cracking episodes performed by an adult female. We hypothesized that, if there is teaching, the monkey's actions would change according to the audience. We used the following behavioral categories: take the nut or the hammer; place or strike the nut. We compared the frequencies of these categories considering episodes with and without an audience, also considering the age of the observers. There were no significant differences, indicating absence of teaching. Further qualitative analysis could reveal details of a behavioral regulation between the nutcracker and the observer that cannot be measured by quantitative methods.
Session: Virtual Posters
Abridged Song Use During Territorial Defense in Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus)
Kendra DeMerchant, Ji-Ho Yoo, Sean Roach
University of New Brunswick - Saint John, Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada

One of song's two primary functions is to convey aggression while defending territories. Numerous vocal behaviours have been discussed as possible signals of aggression, including overlapping, matching, and soft song. A recent playback study (DeMerchant and Roach, 2022) revealed that, in response to simulated territorial intrusion, hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) males use abridged versions of their typical song types that lack their distinctive introductory whistles; however, it is unclear if these unique songs serve to convey information related to aggression. To better understand these abridged songs, a subsequent playback study was conducted to compare the aggressiveness of hermit thrush males' physical responses to their use of abridged songs in response to territorial playback. The results revealed that the two were strongly associated: males that responded with more physical aggression sang more abridged songs. Abridged song use and physical response (distance from speaker) were also associated on a finer time scale, varying together over the course of the playback period. The implications of these findings, including future studies, will be discussed.
Session: Virtual Posters
The importance of scientific audiovisual collections for behavioral ecology studies
Simone Dena1, Luís Felipe Toledo1,2
1Fonoteca Neotropical Jacques Vielliard (FNJV), Museu de Diversidade Biológica (MDBio) - Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 2Laboratório de História Natural de Anfíbios Brasileiros (LaHNAB), Departamento de Biologia Animal, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

Zoological collections represent a concrete way to preserve biodiversity through the conservation of collected specimens and associated data. Among these collections, audiovisual archives preserve extended specimens that represent behavioral activities, experiments, and ecological information. Audiovisual files are easily acquired and used in studies of sexual selection, species recognition, and communication, among others. Also, they can be a support to the evaluation of the effectiveness of conservation and management strategies. However, in the past decades, several comprehensive studies discussed the importance of audiovisual collections but, regardless of the animal group, a great amount of information is being lost every year because many researchers do not see the need to catalog their records in scientific collections. Thus, we would like to encourage all researchers to keep a routine of cataloging video, audio, and photos, preferably in national or regional public audiovisual repositories, and to share their voucher numbers in published papers. 
Session: Let me show you the way: Study Design
Reproductive costs and benefits underlie sex differences in weapon investment in the snapping shrimp
Jason P. Dinh, S.N. Patek
Biology Department, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA

Sexual selection drives the evolution of weapons. We previously showed that large individuals bear disproportionately large weapons because they endure low energetic maintenance costs and attenuated morphological tradeoffs. Here, we identified sex differences in weapon costs that underlie seasonal and sex differences in weapon size in the snapping shrimp, Alpheus heterochaelis. We found that large weaponry disproportionately benefits males and burdens females. For males, as weapon size increased, the likelihood of being paired increased, and the relative size of female pair-mates increased. No trend was seen in females. By contrast, for females, as weapon size increased, egg production decreased. Thus, males boost reproduction by pairing with larger females, whereas females reduce reproduction by decreasing investment in eggs. Our findings are consistent with sex differences and seasonal oscillations in weapon investment: males have larger weapons compared to females, and in the breeding season, when reproduction is at a premium, males increase weapon size but females decrease weapon size. We conclude that differential costs drive sex and seasonal differences in weapon investment.
Session: Allee Symposium
Immediate flexibility in an aerial display during experimental exposure to noise
Pedro Diniz, Edvaldo Silva-Jr, Regina Macedo
Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil

Immediate acoustic flexibility may improve communication under temporary noise conditions. However, it is unclear whether and how noise induces signaling flexibility in animals that rely on multimodal signals for communication. When exposed to short-term noise such animals may rely on non-acoustic signals, increase signal redundancy, adjust acoustic components, or simply decrease signaling intensity momentarily. Male blue-black grassquits (Volatinia jacarina) can produce complete (song plus leap) or incomplete (only song) sexual displays. We recorded displays of male grassquits before, during, and after short experimental exposure to synthetic low-frequency noise in the field. Under noise conditions, males produced fewer complete displays with more variable time intervals between consecutive displays. Males also produced fewer and shorter songs, although without altering other song traits (bandwidth, minimum, mean, and maximum frequencies). Results suggest that grassquits do not adjust their multimodal display to improve communication under noise conditions, but instead reduce display intensity during temporary pulses of noise.
Session: Not on the same page: Communication & Sexual conflict
Social-context-specific color change in panther chameleons  
Alexis/Yoann Dollion1,2,3,4, Sandrine Meylan2, Olivier Marquis5, Mathieu Leroux-Coyau2, Anthony Herrel3
1Université de Paris, Paris, France, 2Sorbonne Université, Paris, France, 3Département Adaptations du vivant, UMR 7179 C.N.R.S/M.N.H.N, Paris, France, 4Arizina State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA, 5Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Parc Zoologique de Paris, Paris, France

Color change is involved in various functions, ranging from thermoregulation to camouflage and communication. The role of color change in communication has received increased attention over the past few decades, but has been predominantly studied in the context of intrasexual competition and not in the context of mate choice. It is possible that speed, direction, or intensity of color change differs according to the receiver and/or its message (e.g. fight or copulate). Here we investigated rapid skin color change during intrasexual disputes and during mate choice in male panther chameleons (Furcifer pardalis). We found that the exhibited color change is different according to the social context. We found female choice for courting males who increased in skin saturation, both in the visible (400-700 nm) and the UV (300-400nm) range. In contrast, male disputes were won by those who changed in skin brightness in the visible range.  
Session: Virtual Talks
Effects of an anti-depressant on behavior in the invasive Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki)  
Jennifer Dougherty, Zachary Culumber
The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL, USA

Anthropogenic pollutants are an ongoing problem in aquatic environments. One such pollutant is fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor also known as Prozac. However, we still do not fully understand how these medical wastes effect aquatic organisms and how they affect traits that are important to the ecology and evolution of aquatic organisms. We examined how chronic exposure to a field-relevant amount of fluoxetine (440ng/L) affects different behaviors in wild-caught Gambusia holbrooki. We tested their affinity to shoal (sociability), their ability to solve a detour maze (cognitive flexibility), and their tendencies to move throughout an artificial stream setting (dispersal), as well as if sociability and cognitive flexibility are predictors of dispersal. We found that exposure to fluoxetine did not affect performance in the described behaviors. Neither sociability nor cognitive flexibility predicted movement in the dispersal assay. At least for G. holbrooki it appears that fluoxetine may not have large effects certain behaviors and dispersal, showing limited effects for the traits tested in this study.  
Session: Virtual Posters
Scent feathers: a shared derived trait in the Genus Aethia?
Hector D Douglas
Dept. of Biological Sciences, Grambling State University, Grambling, Louisiana, USA

Two species in the avian genus Aethia emit conspicuous aldehydic plumage odorants, and two species do not. I hypothesized that shared traits associated with odorant production would be found in crested and whiskered auklets (Aethia cristatella and A. pygmaea). I performed microdissections, chemical analysis, and histological assays to test for the presence of aldehydes in integument. The results were negative for least and parakeet auklets (A. pusilla and A. psittacula), which lack conspicuous odorants. Crested and whiskered auklets shared wick-like feathers containing chemical odorants, but they differ in odorant chemistry. Crested auklets emit even-numbered aldehydes while whiskered auklets emit odd-numbered aldehydes. Evolutionary divergence could have occurred by incorporation of an alternate enzyme in odorant biosynthesis. One wick feather from a whiskered auklet contained a trace of crested auklet odorant chemistry suggesting a common template underlying the two species' biochemical pathways. Notation of the crested auklet's perfume may have been suppressed in the whiskered auklet's floral odor bouquet.
Session: Virtual Talks
Evolutionary preparedness, the value of information, and memory: experiments with bumble bees
Aimee S. Dunlap1, Andreia F. Dexheimer1, 2
1University of Missouri, St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, 2Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Edwardsville, Illinois, USA

What makes experience memorable? Classic studies from operant and Pavlovian conditioning demonstrate that aspects of how the information is learned, such as repetition and spacing, affect how long learning lasts. Models from behavioral ecology predict that the value of information will influence memory length, and as with many other models, the value of information is heavily influenced by rates of change in the environment, and especially reliability. Additional models predict weighting of information towards what was most recently experienced, Finally, the evolved salience of the information should influence memory length. Evolved biological preparedness is a longstanding concept for understanding how learning can be affected by evolved salience. We describe a framework of predictions for how learning and ALSO memory will be affected by evolutionary preparedness, and present data from a series of recent experiments in bumble bees testing for how information is differentially retained based upon color, floral characteristics and social information from conspecifics. We find that memory is affected by both experienced reliability and hypothesized evolved preparedness.
Session: Rack your brain: Behavioral Plasticity & Cognition
Effects of mesotocin in the brain and behavior of a female brood parasite
Fernanda G. Duque, Asma Azam, Aman Kaur, Rachel Pao, Nina Glawe, Kathleen S. Lynch
Hofstra University, Hempstead, New York, USA

Maternal care is a well conserved behavior regulated by an interaction of hormones and neuromodulators. Avian brood parasite females do not incubate their eggs or rear their offspring despite having a surge of the hormone prolactin during the breeding season. In brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), females have lower levels of prolactin receptor (PRLR) in the preoptic area, a region modulating parental care. However, less is known on how activity in other brain regions and neuromodulators involved in social behavior have changed during the evolution of brood parasitism. Here, we examined the effect of mesotocin (MT), homolog to oxytocin in mammals, in the preference for nestlings in breeding cowbird females. We found that MT-treated females spent more time closer to nests with eggs than to nestlings. We then assessed five transcripts across three brain regions that regulate social behavior and found lower MT and PRLR levels in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) in MT-treated females than in controls. In the future, we will include a closely-related parental species to identify brain regions that have changed in brood parasites resulting in the loss of maternal care.
Session: Virtual Talks
Intra-specific interactions among reintroduced and recovering tiger population in Panna Tiger Reserve
Supratim Dutta1, Ramesh Krishnamurthy1,2
1Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India, 2University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Intra-specific interactions in carnivores are among the most fascinating behavioural aspects, which signifies population dynamics. Static interaction depends on space use, while dynamic interaction involves spatio-temporal patterns, demography, distribution, mate selection. We studied 26 individuals fitted with VHF/GPS collars with focus on individual interactions across space and time. MCP and KDE methods were used for static, while IAB index was used for dynamic interaction in different distance thresholds and Cr index to investigate similarity in movement patterns. We observed 18 intra-sex dyads (male), 36 (female) and 73 inter-sex dyads for past 10 years. Wilcoxon test revealed significant difference in spatial interaction in inter-sex dyads. No dynamic interaction was recorded for males; while female and cubs showed interaction and similar movement pattern during juvenile to sub-adult period. The novel IAB index revealed 34 intra-sex dyads at 100m scale. Earlier mate selection was restricted due to lack of male in population; later tigresses showed clear mate selection with unsynchronized movement, reflecting that recovered tiger population is on natural population trajectory.
Session: Virtual Talks
Experimental Control of the Sun and Landmarks for the Study of Sun Compass Learning in Honey Bees
Fred C. Dyer
Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA

The pioneering work of von Frisch established honey bees as a model organism for studying navigation by use of a sun compass. Key insights are that the bees' sun compass integrates spatial information (the sun's changing position relative to landmarks) with temporal information from the circadian clock; that this learning is based on a bee's early flight experience at a specific season and latitude; and that the learning mechanism fills in portions of the sun's course at times of day when bees have never seen it, including at night. It remains puzzling how this learning occurs, in part because of the difficulty of controlling how bees experience the sun as they learn about it or as they use what they have learned. Here I establish and validate a method for controlling bees' view of the sun along a specific flight path (a narrow tunnel through which bees fly to get food), both when the sun's course is being learned and when the sun's position is retrieved from memory, as on cloudy days. A key initial finding is that bees can learn the angle of the sun relative to a specific flight path even if this path shares no landmarks with the broader landscape surrounding the nest.
Session: Growing Smart: Development and Cognition
Decoupling division of labor and worker expertise in simulated colonies
Nicole Dykstra1,2, Mélinda Pozzi3, Simon Garnier1,2
1Federated Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University - Newark, Newark, New Jersey, USA, 2Federated Department of Biological Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey, USA, 3Cognitive Science Center, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland

The success of a social insect colony depends on its members correctly accomplishing a multitude of tasks such as foraging, colony defense and brood care. This is often achieved by dividing labor among workers, with specific individuals performing the same task almost exclusively. However, most studies conflate division of labor - specific workers performing specific tasks - with worker expertise - performing the task better than one's peers. That confusion limits our ability to determine the evolutionary relationships between division of labor and expertise, and their respective impact on the collective output of the colony. We used a simulation approach to decouple the two concepts and found that, when there is high task diversity and a cost to switching tasks, division of labor was a benefit to the colonies' output. Worker expertise, however, decreased worker performance, with colonies benefiting more from generalist workers. Our results suggest that without a mechanism to match task assignments with a worker's expertise, generalist workers may be more beneficial to the colony.
Session: Virtual Talks
Reciprocal help is more evident than kin-bias in a mixed-kin, plural cooperatively breeding society
Alexis D. Earl1, Gerald G. Carter2, Shailee S. Shah1, Arden G. Berlinger1, Dustin R. Rubenstein1
1Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA, 2Department of Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

Cooperatively breeding societies are typically characterized by nonbreeding helpers who assist in raising others' offspring. Although the evolution of such societies has historically been explained by kin selection, there is increasing evidence that cooperative breeding can also be favored by direct fitness benefits, particularly in social groups with low and mixed kinship. Understanding the relative importance of direct versus indirect benefits in the evolution of cooperative societies requires identifying the mechanisms that underlie helping behavior. Using a 20-year study of the obligate plural cooperatively breeding superb starlings (Lamprotornis superbus) who live in social groups with multiple breeding pairs and low kinship, we determined whether helpers preferentially assist relatives (kin-bias) or individuals who previously helped them (reciprocal helping), while controlling for sampling bias. Although we detected reciprocal helping when controlling for relatedness, we did not detect kin biases when controlling for reciprocal help. These results suggest that the direct benefits of reciprocity might help promote the evolution and stability of complex cooperative societies.
Session: For the love of others: Social evolution and behavior
How social dominance is communicated in Canada's most endangered mammal
Phoebe D. Edwards1,2, Sasha L. Newar3, Jeff Bowman3,4, Melissa M. Holmes1, Gabriela F. Mastromonaco2
1University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2Toronto Zoo, Toronto, ON, Canada, 3Trent University, Peterborough, ON, Canada, 4Ontario Ministry of Northern Development, Mines, Natural Resources, and Forestry, Peterborough, ON, Canada

The Vancouver Island marmot (Marmota vancouverensis) is an endangered species endemic to British Columbia, Canada. Captive breeding efforts have been essential in saving this species from extinction. Marmots are bred at the Toronto and Calgary Zoos each year, and the juveniles are reintroduced to the wild, increasing populations from only 30 animals in 2003 to 200 animals in 2020. These efforts are ongoing. However, pairs in the captive breeding program have differential reproductive success. Out of the 8 pairs at the Toronto Zoo each year, only 1-2 females produce pups. We hypothesize that social reproductive suppression is occurring, whereby a dominant female gives social cues that prevent subordinate females from breeding. Captive pairs at the Toronto Zoo cannot physically interact with other pairs, but individuals can hear, smell, and sometimes see each other. We documented behavior, vocalizations, and fecal steroid hormone levels in pairs at the Toronto Zoo during their spring 2022 breeding period. We compare these measures between successful and unsuccessful pairs to investigate dominance cues and other factors that may be associated with differential reproductive success. 
Session: I've Got You Under My Skin: Mating Systems and Physiological Effects
Social Experience Drives Female Zebra Finches' Patterns of Responses to Male Song
Mary R Elson, Nora H Prior, Michael H Goldstein
Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

Female zebra finches prefer their father's song prior to mating and their mate's song after pairing. Outside of song preferences, females have a repertoire of behavioral responses (i.e. calls, wing-strokes, & fluff-ups) that play a role in shaping song learning, courtship, and pair maintenance. These social modulatory behaviors (SMBs) are present in a wide range of contexts including during song learning and coordination of parental care. How does the experience of forming a pair bond alter these behavioral patterns? Here we assessed the preferences and response behaviors of paired and courting females to well-learned and poorly learned male song. We found significant effects of pairing status on females' use of response behaviors. Courting females gave significantly more responses than paired females to both types of song but had higher rates of response to poorly learned song. We did not find a difference in song preferences. These results indicate that during mate selection, females are engaged in dynamic interactions where both the signal and male responsiveness are being assessed prior to pairing decisions.
Session: Influencing each other: Social Behavior
On the function of a female-mimic signal type in the vibrational repertoire of male treehoppers
Ignacio Escalante, Jerald R. Kellner, Camille Desjonqueres, Rafael L Rodriguez
University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA

Animals vary in the complexity and size of their signaling repertoires. Often, there are even multiple signals for a process such as courtship. We focused on an unusual signal type in the courtship display of Enchenopa treehoppers (Membracidae). Males produce plant-borne vibrational advertisement signals, and females duet with them using their own response signals. Interestingly, some males produce an additional signal, which placement and structure resemble a female response. We tested the function of this 'female-mimic' signal with a playback experiment in Wisconsin, USA. First, we tested if this signal increases female response. We found that the female-mimic signal did not elicit more responses. Second, we tested if the female-mimic signal inhibits competing males from signaling. However, playbacks with this signal type were as likely to trigger males to signal as playbacks without it. Third, we explored if this signal functions as a 'self-boost' for the male. Males showed a higher signaling effort when they produced the female-mimic signal. Hence, we suggest that the female-mimic signal functions to increase the display's attractiveness through motivational positive feedback.
Session: Not on the same page: Communication & Sexual conflict
Moms matter: maternal care in green lynx spiders (Peucetia viridans)
Yousi T. Espanol-Rincon, Emily H. DuVal
Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA

Maternal care can have immediate and long-term effects on offspring well-being. Such care can positively influence offspring survival and development. In the case of green lynx spiders, females offer extensive care to their offspring until dispersal by guarding the egg sac. This study investigated the benefits of maternal care across developmental stages during pre-hatch and post-hatch periods. We conducted two experiments where females were removed from a subset of egg sacs, and outcomes were compared to treatments where the female remained with her eggs. Experiments were (a) a pre-hatch field experiment to investigate the role of maternal care on predator and parasite deterrence (N=26), and (b) a post-hatch laboratory experiment to investigate the role of maternal care on emergence success, clutch size, clustering, offspring size, and growth rate, with predators and parasitoids excluded (N= 43). Females improved offspring survival by preventing predation before hatching and facilitating spiderling emergence from the egg sac after hatching. Maternal care behavior improves offspring fitness across multiple developmental stages.
Session: Bringing Up Baby: Parental Behavior
Behavioral responses to calls can provide insight into the importance and relevance of social connections
Cesar O. Estien1,2, Annemarie van der Marel2,3, Elizabeth A. Hobson2
1University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA, 2University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA, 3Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile

Social relationships with conspecifics can provide many benefits, but the strength of relationships can fluctuate over time in response to previous interactions and current group dynamics. Being able to categorize these affiliative relationships by strength or importance could help individuals better prioritize social investments that affect the formation or persistence of social connections. However, we still do not have a general understanding of when these shifts in the salience of dyadic relationships occur or how to detect these across species. Here, we leverage playback experiments to detect the salience of relationships. We sequentially removed individuals from a social group, leaving behind their social partner(s). These remaining partners could freely form new affiliative bonds with different group members. We tested (1) how birds responded to calls from their removed partner, to indicate whether the relationship was still salient or not, and (2) whether a strong response to playbacks predicted a strong affiliative response once the removed bird was reintroduced. This experimental approach can be used to provide insight into the dynamics of relationship persistence.
Session: Social Competency: An Integrative Approach to Understanding Connections Between Social Information, Decision-Making, and Cognition
Vertical transmission and fitness consequences of socio-ecological strategies in bottlenose dolphins
Taylor Evans1, Molly McEntee1, Vivienne Foroughirad1, Ewa Krzyszczyk2, Céline Frère3, Janet Mann1
1Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA, 2Bangor University, Bangor, Wales, 3University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, Australia

Individual socio-ecological strategies reflect the long-term persistence and covariance of social and ecological traits. In bottlenose dolphins, gregarious individuals tend to spend less time foraging and use generalized foraging tactics compared to less social, tool-using dolphins. But it is not known how this variation is maintained within populations. Foraging tactics are vertically transmitted, but multifaceted socio-ecological strategies have not been investigated. We utilized 32 years of behavioral and demographic data on wild Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) to investigate maternal influence on individual socio-ecology and consequences for fitness. We categorized socio-ecological strategies of 173 (96 female, 77 male) individuals based on gregariousness, habitat use, and foraging tactics. Maternal socio-ecological strategy strongly predicted offspring strategy for females, especially tool-users. For males, maternal correlation was strong for habitat use but variable for social behavior. Most strategies were not associated with survival, corroborating predictions from niche theory, but females that use sponge tools to forage had a reduced mortality hazard.
Session: Virtual Talks
Tool use and food properties in wild capuchin monkeys
Tiago Falótico1,2, Tatiane Valença1,2,3, Michele P. Verderane2, Mariana D. Fogaça2,4
1School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities - University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 2Neotropical Primates Research Group , São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 3Institute of Psychology - University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 4University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria

Robust capuchin monkeys (Sapajus) are known for processing mechanically challenging food. Although having morphological adaptations to do so, several populations go beyond body limitations, using tools to expand their food range exploration. Stone tools can be used in various ways, goals, and with different frequencies. Stone tool size correlates with the food's resistance in some populations, but we have no detailed comparisons between populations to identify ecological or cultural differences. This study described and compared stone raw material availability, food's physical properties, and stone tools features on three populations of bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus). The differences we observed regarding stone tool weight among sites could be partially explained by ecological factors, such as the raw material and resource availability. However, other differences appear to be more related to behavioral traditions, such as the processing of Hymenaea. Capuchin monkey behavioral variability in stone tool use is likely caused by several interacting factors, from ecological to cultural.
Session: Rack your brain: Behavioral Plasticity & Cognition
Size-selective harvesting evolutionarily alters vulnerability to fishing and predation in zebrafish
Daniel Faria1, Tamal Roy1, Robert Arlinghaus1,2
1Department of Fish Biology, Fisheries and Aquaculture, Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 310, Berlin, 12587, Germany, 2Division of Integrative Fisheries Management, Department of Crop and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Life Science, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, Berlin, 10115, Germany

Intensive size-selective harvesting alters group behavioural traits like shoaling by changing individual vigilance. These changes could affect vulnerability to fishing gears and natural predators. We tested this experimentally using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model in a multi-generation harvest selection experiment. We generated 3 lines through selective harvesting for large, small & random body-size for 5 generations followed by no selection for 10 generations to test evolutionarily fixed outcomes. We predicted that positive size-selection would result in reduced fishing but increased natural mortality. We exposed zebrafish groups to a trap and trawl, and to a live cichlid predator. Significantly fewer individuals of the large-harvested line were caught by the trap & trawl compared to controls indicating that adaptation to large size-selection selected for behavioural traits that reduced vulnerability to fishing. With the predator, the small-harvested line suffered significantly higher mortality compared to controls. Thus, evolutionary adaptations of fish to large size-selection may help stocks survive against fishing and not substantially increase natural mortality.
Session: Virtual Talks
Is there a change in the behavior of Astyanax lacustris when exposed to aluminum?
Natália Pires Vieira Morais de Faria1, Bianca Mayumi Silva Kida1, Raisa Pereira Abdalla1, Diego dos Santos Brito1, Renata Guimarães Moreira1, Renato Massaaki Honji2
1Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, 2Centro de Biologia Marinha, Universidade de Biologia Marinha (CEBIMar/USP), São Sebastião, São Paulo, Brazil

Endocrine and metabolic changes have already been observed in fish exposed to aluminum metal (Al), however, behavioral changes in fish nessas condições have not yet been performed. Therefore, the aim of study was to evaluate the social behavior of A. lacustris when exposed to Al in an acute exposure of 1 h. For this, the following experimental groups were considered: control at neutral pH (CTL/n) and acid pH (pH/ac); and aluminum group at acidic pH (Al/ac). An ethogram of all social interactions between males and females, as well as the swimming activity, was prepared. Females in the CTL/n and pH/ac groups were more aggressive and more active than males, including several agonistic attacks in males. Contrary to what was observed in the Al/ac group, in which females did not show aggressive behavior and couples decreased their swimming activity. In addition, in this group, repetitive movements towards the aquarium surface and high mucus production were observed, indicating important physiological changes, in addition to behavioral changes. Therefore, we conclude that Al can be considered a behavioral, endocrine and metabolic disruptor in A. lacustris.
Session: Virtual Posters
Modeling student behavior to stimulate curiosity and hypothesis testing: the legacy of William Eberhard
Alejandro Gustavo Farji-Brener
INBIOMA, CONICET, San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina

The transcendence of a scientist also depends on his ability to transmit how nature works. Here I will describe some of the strategies that William Eberhard (WE) has used to stimulate curiosity, critical thinking, and hypothesis testing to students. In his talks, WE presented data questioning common ecological concepts, leaving it to the students themselves to dispute their validity and promoting an passionate debate. On field walks, he questioned ecological concepts learned in the classroom through exercises in the field. While leading research projects, he allowed students to get lost in an ocean of hypothetical-deductive reasoning, without setting pre-established directions. His sporadic comments acted as a lighthouse that helped students discover their own route to port. WE encouraged that ideas should be slaves to the data, and not vice versa. He never imparted dogmas, but questioned them. Most teachers believe that the best way to teach science is to tell how things are. WE teaches exactly the opposite: that asking good questions is much better than giving straight answers.
Session: Detailed Observations of Behavior for Generating Questions and Answering Them – A tribute to William Eberhard and Mary Jane West-Eberhard.
Nest Box Microclimate and Parental Care Behavior in Carolina Wrens
David Farris, Diane Neudorf
Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX, USA

Land management practices have led to a decline in natural cavities that are used by many bird species. Nest boxes have been used to replace lost natural cavities, but can be less insulative and drier than their natural counterparts. Since urban areas may be warmer and drier than rural areas, boxes placed in these habitats may reflect these differences and influence incubation and feeding behaviors. We compared nest boxes used by Carolina Wrens (Thryothorus ludovicianus) to get a better understanding of how differences in habitat affected microclimates in nest boxes and how differences in temperature and humidity effected incubation and feeding behavior. We placed iButtons to measure temperature and humidity when incubation started to nest completion. Video recordings of incubation and feeding behavior were recorded during the morning and afternoon. We used multiple linear regression and mixed effect models to test whether temperature, humidity, and habitat contributed to differences in incubation and feeding behavior. Our study did not find significant differences in wren incubation or feeding in the urban and rural habitats when temperature and humidity were considered.  
Session: Bringing Up Baby: Parental Behavior
Differences in the valence of learned stimuli in two species of swordtails
Paola Fascinetto-Zago1,2, Baruc Zago-Mazzocco2, Gil G. Rosenthal2,3
1Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA, 2Centro de Investigaciones Científicas de las Huastecas "Aguazarca", Calnali, Hidalgo, Mexico, 3Università di Padova, Padua, Italy

Closely related species often inhabit divergent ecological that differ in threats and resources. These ecological differences can affect learning and decision-making. Therefore, the reinforcers used in learning experience may differ in valence among species, and personality may affect how a subject experiences them. We focused on two sister species of poecilid fish that experience different risks and show divergent personalities on the shy-bold axis. Our aim was to assess whether these species react in the same way to three different reinforcers on avoidance learning tests and whether personality affects their responses. We associated an arbitrary color with a "negative" reinforcement (predator decoy, dead fish, or air bubbles) and measured changes in association time to assay learning and time out of shelter to assay boldness. Fish showed differences in personality and variation in the salience and valence of learned stimuli, showing that the same reinforcement used in learning studies can yield different results depending on the evolutionary history of the subject.
Session: Puzzling Animals: Learning and Cognition
Preliminary Investigation of Behavior Support Programs in U.S. Animal Shelters 
Carley Faughn, PhD1, Sheila Segurson, DVM, DAVCB, CDBC, CCBC2
1Best Friends Animal Society, Kanab, UT, USA, 2Maddie's Fund, Pleasanton , CA, USA

The Behavior Support Programs survey was developed to gain an overview of U.S. shelter's behavior programming for dogs with behavioral concerns. Some of the programs asked about were whether the organizations had programs to support their community when faced with dogs with behavioral concerns, what support is provided for foster caregivers and adopters, what in-shelter behavior programming and management is supported, outcome decision making, and more.   We know that large dogs are at higher risk for euthanasia and to save more lives we need to understand which behavioral concerns are leading to the highest number of dog euthanasia. To guide what needs to be prioritized to save more dogs, we need to understand the behavior programming that exists in shelters and rescues across the country, and how it's being supported within communities. The survey results show that there tends to be more in-shelter behavior support than community, foster, and post-adoption support. Even if some of these programs exist for dogs with behavioral concerns, it was frequently noted that their programming needs improvement in these areas.
Session: Keep me happy: Animal behavior and welfare in captivity
Mate preferences and choosiness are distinct components of mate choice in Gray Treefrogs (Hyla versicolor)
Olivia S Feagles, Gerlinde Hoebel
University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA

Mate choice is an important cause of natural and sexual selection, driving the evolution of ornaments and promoting diversification and speciation. Mate choice decisions arise from the interaction of several components, and knowledge of whether they interact, and how, is crucial for understanding their contributions to selection. Here we focus on the relationship between preference functions (attractiveness ranking of prospective mates) and choosiness (effort invested in obtaining the preferred mate) and test the hypothesis that they are independent components of mate choice decisions. We examine individual variation in preference functions and choosiness for call duration in female Hyla versicolor treefrogs and show that measures describing preference functions and choosiness are not correlated. We also found a suggestive but inconclusive pattern that both components are influenced by different factors (body measures and hormones). Independence of preference and choosiness suggests that the joint study of variation in both components is required to gain a complete understanding of how mate choice contributes to sexual selection and speciation.
Session: Virtual Talks
Evidence of information processing in cognition and collectives
Vanessa Ferdinand
University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Individuals living in groups produce social information that may help balance the costs and benefits of sociality. However, it can be difficult to operationalize definitions of information or to determine how to accurately describe these individuals (or collective groups) as information-processing systems. In this talk, I provide a practical overview of the nature of information, how to identify the hallmarks of information processing systems, and a summary of how core concepts, such as surprisal and communicative efficiency, can be quantified and identified using information theoretic terms. I then apply an information-theoretic lens to animal social behavior and discuss how information processing could be detected in examples such as communication, co-foraging, joint navigation, and sensory drive. Finally, I describe how computational cognitive science offers further insight into information processing systems by focusing on the system's objective function. Combined, I show how these concepts can lead to the development of new ideas about social competency as any reduction in entropy, by individuals, that supports the objective function of the group.
Session: Social Competency: An Integrative Approach to Understanding Connections Between Social Information, Decision-Making, and Cognition
Babbling in bat pups and human infants: shared features of an extraordinary vocal practice behavior
Ahana A. Fernandez1, Mirjam Knörnschild1,2,3
1Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science, Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 2Free University of Berlin, Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City, Panama, Panama

Speech is the vocal motor output aspect of language and requires precise control over our vocal apparatus, steered by neuronal mechanisms.  Every child needs to acquire this control to produce mature speech sounds (e.g. „ba", „ga"). This process is observed during babbling, a production milestone in infant speech development, characterized by universal features. Babbling is rare in non-human animals and so far, there is only one other vocal production learning (VPL) mammal besides humans that shows this behavior during ontogeny: the greater sac-winged bat Saccopteryx bilineata. We studied the entire vocal ontogeny of 20 wild pups to investigate whether babbling in S. bilineata pups is characterized by the same features that define infant babbling. Our results showed that the features defining human infant babbling are also characteristic of pup babbling, including conspicuous features like rhythmicity and syllable reduplication. The similarities in babbling features between two species sharing traits such as VPL, laryngeal sound production and similar brain architecture are a promising basis for comparative investigations of neuronal substrates in mammalian VPL.  
Session: Virtual Talks
Environmental impacts on working dogs detecting explosive materials
Lauren S. Fernandez, Sarah Kane, Nathaniel Hall
Texas Tech University , Lubbock, Tx, USA

Humans have relied on the olfaction capabilities of working dogs for explosive detection for decades. However, it has been suggested that extreme environmental conditions affect the performance of working dogs in an operational context (Singletary et al. 2021). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of environmental conditions on the olfactory threshold of working dogs detecting explosive materials. In this experiment, 8 dogs were tested on a go/no-go air dilution system in an environmental chamber to determine the odor sensitivity of four different explosive materials. Canine thresholds were determined in standard conditions and four environmental conditions (hot-humid, hot-dry, cold-humid, and cold-dry), where olfactometry maintained similar odor concentrations. Overall, canine thresholds varied for different energetic materials and declined in most environmental conditions compared to the standard conditions. Overall, environmental conditions affect olfactory thresholds of working dogs detecting explosive material, highlighting the importance of considering ambient conditions in olfactory search tasks. Keywords: Environment conditions, olfaction, working dogs  
Session: Virtual Talks
Absence of Anti-Parasitic Referential Alarm Calls in Yellow Warblers Allopatric from Brood Parasites
Facundo Fernandez-Duque1, Shelby Lawson1, Janice Enos1, Sonia Kleindorfer2, Sharon Gill3, Mark E. Hauber1
1University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA, 2Konrad Lorenz Research Center, Vienna, Grünau im Almtal, Austria, 3Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA

Yellow Warblers (Setophaga petechia) in North America use referential anti-parasitic calls to warn of nearby brood parasitic Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater). Here we tested whether the Galápagos subspecies of Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechia aureola), which has been geographically isolated from brood parasites for ~300,000 years, produce and respond to referential anti-parasitic calls. We presented 75 Yellow Warbler pairs with different playbacks (brood parasite calls, referential anti-parasitic calls, general alarm calls, nest predator calls, predator calls, and controls) and compared aggressive responses between treatments. We found that pairs showed significantly lower aggression toward playbacks signaling brood parasitic risk (referential anti-parasitic and cowbird calls) compared to the other experimental treatments. Critically, Galápagos Yellow Warblers never produced any referential anti-parasitic calls. Our results suggest that in geographic isolation from cowbirds, Galápagos Yellow Warblers do not use or recognize referential alarm calls indicating brood parasitic nest threats.  
Session: You Are (Not) What You Eat: Host-Parasite Interactions
How to increase the credibility of animal behavior research with evidence-based approaches
Esteban Fernandez-Juricic
Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA

Recently, some cases of lack of reproducibility and replicability with strong links to animal behavior have been brought to light. Our discipline has now an opportunity to revert questionable research practices, but stakeholders have shown concerns about some solutions. I argue that animal behavior can learn from evidence-based approaches in other STEM disciplines that have gone through the reproducibility crisis. I will focus on three practices: training of editors and reviewers to minimize different biases (p-hacking, HARKing, etc.) when assessing manuscripts, submissions to journals requiring both the data and the code of the statistical analyses to increase computational reproducibility, and pre-registrations to reduce publication bias. Engaging in these practices starts with heavily moving towards a culture of sharing (within and between labs) hypotheses/predictions, methods, metadata, data, and code. For these practices to be successful, journal editors and reviewers, award committees, and funding agencies ought to apply new standards of transparency. Supporting research transparency is not cost-free, but it is sorely needed to avoid stifling the growth of our discipline.
Session: Virtual Talks
The (bright) future of visual ecology and behavior
Esteban Fernandez-Juricic
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA

The future of the study of vision and behavior in animals looks particularly exciting because of the revision of current (and development of novel) theoretical frameworks as well as the availability of new technologies to investigate visual anatomy and physiology and visual behaviors. The different talks in this symposium will highlight the need to generate more regular cross talks between fields, which will hopefully lead to new (and more integrative) research projects. Yet the success of these projects will depend upon how supportive the community of reviewers, editors, and funding agencies becomes. The integration between vision and behavior can also benefit from the access and training of traditional methods to measure visual anatomy and physiology, the development of novel computational and methodological tools to measure fine-grained changes in visual behavior, the focus on interpreting the behavioral implications of the degree of within- and between-species variation in visual perception, the sharing of raw data for future synthesis, and the reinforcement of links to applied ecology to manage human-wildlife interactions. 
Session: Visual Ecology and Behavior: future research challenges and opportunities
Relative investment of a provisioning iteroparous bug, Sehirus cinctus, in first and second broods
Lisa Filippi, Natalia Prieto, Zarlasht Khan
Hofstra University, Hempstead, New York, USA

Females of the iteroparous burrower bug Sehirus cinctus (Heteroptera: Cydnidae) provision nymphs with Lamium spp.seeds. We assessed the impact of female body mass on relative investment to first and second broods. We hypothesized that heavier females, which should produce more eggs, would have more resources to provision. We also hypothesized that, because longer duration of time spent in the field provisioning should increase risk of death, females would invest more in first broods than second broods. In support of our first hypothesis, there was a significant correlation between female mass and total provisioning capacity to support the significantly larger egg masses. In support of our second hypothesis, second egg masses were significantly smaller than first egg masses, resulting in significantly fewer nymphs. However, while females provisioned second broods with 61% fewer seeds, the average number of seeds provided per nymph was only slightly less for second broods (1.7 vs 1.5, respectively). Female S. cinctus invest fewer total resources in the second brood, but apparently match the poorer provisioning capacity to the number of nymphs.
Session: Poster Session 2
Defining the olfactory landscape to better understand animal movement and decision-making
Patrick B. Finnerty1, Clare McArthur1, Catherine Price1, Peter Banks1, Adrian M. Shrader2
1The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia, 2University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa

Across a landscape, 'external factors' (both the physical environment and living organisms) are key drivers of animal behavior, movement and decision making. Yet the information and sensory mechanisms animals use to detect and respond to these external factors are seldom discussed. Here we highlight the importance of odor as a major information source many animals use to make non-random decisions to move. Odor is everywhere, emitted across the landscape from predators, prey, decaying carcasses, conspecifics, vegetation, surface water and smoke. Many animals exploit odor to find food, avoid threats, and attract or judge potential mates. Here, we focus on odor in terrestrial ecosystems to introduce the concept of an olfactory landscape: real-time dynamic olfactory contours reflecting the patchy distribution of resources and risks, providing a key source of information used by many animals in their movement and decision-making. Incorporating the olfactory landscape into current frameworks of animal behavior will provide a mechanistic link to help answer significant questions about where, why, and when many animals move, and how they do so efficiently in both space and time.
Session: The thrill of the hunt: Predators and their ecological effects
Gene by environment interactions in variation in female mate preference in Xiphophorus multilineatus
Meredith Fitschen-Brown1,2, Molly Morris1,2
1Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA, 2Ohio Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Studies, Athens, OH, USA

Variation in female mate preference can drive selection on male traits and maintain genetic variation, and yet the extent to which preferences can evolve requires a better understanding of the factors that produce this variation. Xiphophorus multilineatus, is a fish where the males exhibit alternative reproductive tactics. We preformed two experiments to examine the influence of a female's genotype, growth rate, and social experience on variation in mate preference for courter vs sneaker males. First, we manipulated the composition of the female's social environment (100% courter vs 100% sneaker) and her genotype in breeding mesocosms. Second, we tested different female genotypes before and after mating experience. We found that females with a sneaker genotype had a stronger preference for courter males than females with a courter genotype regardless of their experience. In addition, sneaker lineage females preference decreased as their growth rates increased, which was the opposite for courter lineage females. Given the growth rate/survival tradeoff detected in the males, we discuss the potential implications of these results in relation to selection on mating preferences.
Session: Sexy Time: Mating Behavior and Sexual Selection
Local Ecological Knowledge Supports identification of Sea Turtle Nesting Beaches in Panama
Eric E. Flores1,2,3, Joelbin R. De La Cruz1,4, Jeffrey A. Seminoff5, Luis D. Ureña1
1Panama Wildlife Conservation, London, London, United Kingdom, 2INDICASAT AIP, Panama, Panama, Panama, 3Coiba Scientific Station (COIBA AIP), Panama, Panama, Panama, 4Ministry of Environment of Panama, Panama, Panama, Panama, 5NOAA-Southwest Fisheries Science Center, La Jolla, California, USA

Here we report on un-surveyed sea turtle nesting beaches in an isolated region of the Azuero Peninsula in central Pacific Panama. The initial identification was based on information collected during semi-structured interviews (n = 21) in 12 communities. We surveyed nine beaches: Cacajilloso, El Gato, Sandillal, Colorado 2, Sierra, Granada, Frijoles, Verde and Horcones beaches. In total, we encountered 128 beach crawl tracks among two species, including Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas, n = 92) and Olive Ridley Turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea, n = 36). We also directly observed Green Turtles (n = 16), Olive Ridleys (n = 25), and Hawksbill Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata, n = 2) during surveys. Olive Ridleys had the most widespread nesting activity (6/9 beaches), followed by Green Turtles (4/9 beaches) and Hawksbill Turtles (2/9 beaches). We saw no evidence of Leatherback nesting. In addition to highlighting the value of LEK, our study provides novel information on the distribution and abundance of sea turtles in remote areas in Panama
Session: Their Best Interests in Mind: Conservation and Behavior
Gut Microbiota Diversity and Composition is Associated with Exploratory Behavior in a Wild-Caught Songbird
Melanie R. Florkowski, Jessica L. Yorzinski
Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

The gut microbiota influences its host in several ways from immune system development to nutrient utilization. However, our understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and behavior is still poor, especially in wild organisms. We hypothesized that diversity of the gut microbiota will correlate with exploratory behavior. To test this hypothesis, we measured the gut microbiota diversity of wild-caught house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and measured their exploratory behavior in a novel environment. We found that birds with higher alpha diversity of the gut microbiota also had higher exploratory behavior. We also measured gut microbiota composition, or beta diversity, as well as potential functions of the gut microbiota communities. We found different microbial compositions between high and low exploring birds as well as several metabolic pathways that differed between exploratory groups. Overall, we found that the gut microbiota relates to the exploratory behavior of house sparrows in diversity as well as predicted function. Our study highlights the importance of considering the gut microbiota when investigating animal behavior.   
Session: Allee Symposium
Mating-related barriers to gene flow shape ancestry patterns along hybrid baboon genomes
Arielle S. Fogel1, Tauras P. Vilgalys1,2, Shuyu He1, Elizabeth A. Archie3, Susan C. Alberts1, Jenny Tung1,4,5
1Duke University, Durham, NC, USA, 2University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA, 3University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA, 4Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 5Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Saxony, Germany

The reciprocal relationship between behavior and evolutionary processes is highlighted in hybrid zones. Hybridization rearranges genomes to alter variation in behavioral traits. Conversely, behaviors such as mating influence the incidence of hybridization. To understand the role of behavior in maintaining species boundaries, we combined genetic ancestry analysis in 442 wild hybrid baboons (Papio cynocephalus x P. anubis) with five decades of field data. We found 1,185 pairs of loci that were unusually likely to have matched ancestry, consistent with the removal of mismatched ancestry by selection. For 92 of these locus pairs, baboons with matched ancestry were the most likely to mate (11,597 male-female dyads). Baboons mated more assortatively based on ancestry at these loci than they did based on morphology. Mating-associated loci are near genes involved in nervous system traits, suggesting a role in behavioral modulation. Together, our results point to novel loci involved in complex mating behavior in the wild. They emphasize a key role for behavior in shaping ancestry along primate genomes, suggesting that behavioral barriers may be important in maintaining primate diversity. 
Session: Allee Symposium
Interspecific flock communication: effects of masking and distraction on anti-predator behavior
Mark Fossesca, Trina Chou, Avani Desai, Anjali Krishna, Megan Gall
Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY, USA

Information about predation risk can be obtained from personal or public sources. Both types of information gathering can be impaired by competing stimuli, as has been demonstrated for a range of taxa in anthropogenic noise. However, it is not yet clear what mechanism produces impaired behavioral responses, although many studies assume it to be masking. More recently, attention has been given to the distraction hypothesis, which postulates that background noise may compete with relevant sensory stimuli for attentional space. Here, we investigated these two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and their interspecific flock mates. We presented birds with either a predator mount or mobbing call playback with or without noise. We predicted that if behavioral responses were impaired only when information about predation risk was presented in the same sensory modality as noise, the masking hypothesis would be supported. If behavioral responses are also impaired when the noise and stimuli are presented in different modalities, the distraction hypothesis would be supported. Both may contribute to impaired communication under noisy conditions.
Session: Virtual Posters
Care in the time of chytrid: The role of parental care in the spread of a deadly pathogen
Chloe A Fouilloux1, Gabriel De Freitas Almeida1, Gonçalo M Rosa2, Lotta-Riina Sundberg1, Andrius Pašukonis3, Shirley Jennifer Serrano Rojas4, Trent Garner2, Bibiana Rojas5
1University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland, 2Zoological Society of London, London, United Kingdom, 3Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionelle et Evolutive, CNRS, Montpellier, France, 4Stanford University, Stanford, USA, 5Konrad Lorenz Institute of Ethology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria

The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has affected over 500 amphibian species globally. While reports of its prevalence in adults have been extensive across various species, the actual mechanisms underlying its dispersal and transmission across life stages have been limited. We analysed different routes of pathogen infection in wild D. tinctorius, a Neotropical poison frog with elaborate parental care, exploring both adult-tadpole and tadpole-tadpole transmission, as well as the potential role of larval nurseries as Bd reservoirs. We found that infection rates in tadpoles are not density-dependent, and that infections occur outside of the ideal growth conditions for Bd in aquatic environments, suggesting that tadpoles do not acquire infections from each other or through the live zoospores their nurseries. Adult males present higher infection loads than females and, as the caring parent, we hypothesise that males may be responsible for infecting tadpoles during transport. Our results highlight the intricate dynamics of an aquatic pathogen in a terrestrial system, and provide a solid framework to further explore disease prevalence, spread and persistence in the wild.
Session: Allee Symposium
Multiple plastic traits predict assortative mating by developmental environment
Kasey D. Fowler-Finn1, Amy Runck2, T. William Shoenberger1
1Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA, 2Winona State University, Winona, Minnesota, USA

Assortative mating is widespread in nature and can affect population genetic structure, particularly when assortment happens across ecological niches. We explore the potential for developmental plasticity to generate assortative mating by ecological niche in a host plant generalist sap-feeding insect, Entylia carinata. We find population genomic structure according to the plant species on which it feeds. We reared juveniles from two plant species in a 2x2 design in the greenhouse. We tested plasticity in habitat preference, male mating signals, and insect phenology. We found no costs of switching host plant species on development, maturation or survival. However, we find induced habitat preference for the species on which the insects prefer to feed and sexually signal, suggesting plasticity could act as a 'magic trait.' We also found plasticity in male sexual signals and phenological shifts across developmental plant species, supporting two additional mechanisms by which developmental plasticity could generate assortative mating by developmental host plant species. Future work will delve into the relationship between plasticity, assortative mating, and population genomic structure.
Session: Virtual Talks
DNA methylation patterns underlying developmental behavioural plasticity in guppies
Janay Fox, Simon Reader, Mélanie Guigueno, Rowan Barrett
McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada

Early-life experiences may be predictive of experiences later in life, potentially giving individuals the opportunity to prime their behaviour to match the environment. However, the mechanism underlying this developmental behavioural plasticity remains unknown. Epigenetics, such as DNA methylation (DNAm), offers a link between the environment and the genome that could possibly explain this. Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are small social fish that exhibit changes in life histories and behaviour associated with varying predation pressure. We investigated the impact of early-life exposure to predation stress on behaviour, social learning, and DNAm in the brain. We exposed guppies to either alarm cue, inducing predation stress, or control sham cue throughout development and then subjected them to a series of behavioural assays: an open-field, shoaling test, feeding test, and a social learning test. Following assays, we removed brains and extracted DNA which was used for whole genome bisulfite sequencing. Results obtained from this study will uncover DNAm and behavioural responses to early-life stress and investigate relationships between variation in DNAm and behaviour.
Session: Rack your brain: Behavioral Plasticity & Cognition
Time Dependent Aggressive Decision-Making in Monk Parakeets
Xavier Francis, Annemarie van der Marel, Elizabeth A. Hobson
University of Cincinnati , Cincinnati, OH, USA

To successfully navigate social conflict, group members make many social decisions: they must decide who to fight, the intensity of aggression to use, and when to fight. The social context of these decisions is often time sensitive, so animals need to assess incoming social information and make real-time decisions. An individual's social competence, or ability to optimize social decisions, can affect their dominance rank. We determined how individuals respond to aggression on a fight-by-fight basis via the detection of various time dependent aggression rules (e.g. if A attacks B, what do all the individuals do next?). We collected aggression interactions from a group of captive monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) and analyzed fights to determine which rules were followed by comparing the observed order of fights to randomly ordered fights. Using aggression rule following as a lens into what social information group members pay attention to and how they use this information provides a generalizable methodology that can be used to investigate similar questions in many social species, allowing for the potential for large scale comparative research on social decision-making.
Session: Social Competency: An Integrative Approach to Understanding Connections Between Social Information, Decision-Making, and Cognition
Mixed-species flock variation and novel feeder tasks: experimental tests with chickadees and titmice
Todd M Freeberg1, Shannon K Eppert1,2, Brittany A Coppinger1,3
1University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA, 2James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA, USA, 3Villanova University, Villanova, PA, USA

A benefit of group living is increased ability to find food. Mixed-species groups may benefit more than monospecific groups because of the increased diversity of group members with different foraging abilities. Field studies suggest that mixed-species flock size and composition impact individuals' abilities to find and exploit food resources, but experimental manipulations of flock size and composition are needed. Here, in semi-natural aviary settings, we tested different flock sizes and compositions of Carolina chickadees, Poecile carolinensis, and tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor, to assess the role of mixed-species flock variation on success at novel feeder tasks. In two different tasks - a neophobia and an apparatus-manipulation task - titmouse flocks that solved the task had a greater proportion of titmice in them than titmouse flocks that failed the task. In a producer-scrounger task, successful chickadee flocks solved the task quicker with a greater proportion of titmice in their flocks. Our experimental manipulation of mixed-species flock size and composition revealed individual sensitivity to the proportions of heterospecifics in gaining food in novel feeder tasks.
Session: Influencing each other: Social Behavior
Signaling Vigor in Gryllodes Sigillatus: Relationship with Signaling Quality and Age
Alyssa A. Froome, Susan M. Bertram
Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Male Gryllidae acoustic signaling behaviour varies between and within species and can be influenced by age. As males have often been found to honestly signal their body condition, age may influence a male's perceived attractiveness to potential mates. We investigated variation in mate attraction signaling behavior within and among male Gryllodes sigillatus'. Specifically, we ascertained how signaling vigor correlated with different aspects of signal quality. We also examined the effect of age on this variation within and across individuals. We placed males of known age into our electronic acoustic recording system and quantified signaling behaviour for 21 days post imaginal molt, or until their natural death, whichever came first. Understanding variation in acoustic mate signaling behavior within and across males as they age is vital to understanding how females may be able to gleen information about males during their mate selection process.
Session: Poster Session 2
A Review of Sensory Cues for Rejecting  Foreign Eggs from the Nest by the Blackbird (Turdus merula)
Andrew G. Fulmer1, Mark E. Hauber2
1Fort Lewis College, Durango, Colorado, USA, 2University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA

Costs of avian brood parasitism select for cognitive processes enabling anti-parasitic host strategies. Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula) build open-cup nests and are sympatric with common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus). While blackbirds are parasitized rarely by cuckoos, they are robust rejectors of non-mimetic foreign eggs in the nest. We provide a comprehensive, quantitative review of blackbird studies on foreign egg rejection. Vision is the primary direct sensory modality that blackbirds use to assess eggs, while less commonly studied rejection indirect cues include predator exposure, individual experience, clutch completion stage, and maternal hormonal state. Blackbirds eject even highly mimetic (conspecific) eggs at moderate rates, apparently relying on similar sensory cues. Although the cues involved in foreign egg recognition by Eurasian blackbirds do not appear specialized to non-mimetic cuckoo parasitism, we cannot differentiate between hypotheses that blackbird rejection evolved in response to parasitism by a) conspecifics and/or b) a now-extinct cuckoo gens.
Session: You Are (Not) What You Eat: Host-Parasite Interactions
Behaviour of an Indian Paper Wasp: Questions and Answers in the Tradition of the Eberhards.  
Raghavendra Gadagkar
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

Inspired by Mary Jane West-Eberhard and Bill Eberhard, a large number of students and I have watched the Indian paper wasp, Ropalidia marginata as ethologists and evolutionary biologists. We have asked many questions such as how does the queen behave as compared to her workers, how does an individual become a queen in the first place, how does she prevent her workers from laying eggs and ensure that they work for the colony, how does the queen maintain her status and why does she sometimes lose it, how do the workers detect the presence or absence of their queen, how is the queen's successor chosen, why do some wasps leave to found their own nests? We have answered these questions with simple behavioural observations of natural and manipulated colonies. Each answer has led to new questions and the cycle of questions and answers is never ending but has already led to the picture of an exquisitely organized tropical insect society with an intriguing ability to tread the fine balance between cooperation and conflict.  
Session: Detailed Observations of Behavior for Generating Questions and Answering Them – A tribute to William Eberhard and Mary Jane West-Eberhard.
Effect of Situation-Specific Social Structure on Network Change Following a Multiple-Mortality Event
Kaija Gahm, Noa Pinter-Wollman
University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Death or dispersal of social animals may affect the structure of their social groups directly (loss of individuals) or indirectly (changed relationships). Individuals' positions may differ across situations; for example, a central individual in a grooming situation might be less central in an agonistic situation. These differences may buffer the effect of node loss on the overall social structure. To investigate how situation-specific social structures affect network recovery after a loss, I will use social network analysis to examine an agent-based model of griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus). These vultures interact in distinct social situations (e.g., roosting, feeding, and flight) and face mortality from poisoned carrion. A single poisoning event may kill several vultures in a short period. Prior research has examined the consequences of removing a single node, but the question of how clustered, simultaneous deaths affect animal social structure is unexplored. My findings will have implications for vulture conservation and for the study of social behavior more broadly, with particular significance for endangered species or those subject to frequent anthropogenic mortality events.
Session: Poster Session 2
Behavioral Measures of Humboldt Penguin Bond Strength
Julia Galante, Alaina Sommerstorfer, Susan Margulis
Canisius College, Buffalo, NY, USA

Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) form long term pair bonds and both males and females incubate and care for young. The species is considered vulnerable, and zoos collectively manage and breed the species for long-term survival. The purpose of this project was to observe Humboldt penguin behavior and space use at the Aquarium of Niagara. Since July 2020, we have used two software programs (Animal Behaviour Pro and Zoo Monitor) to collect data. We compare the efficacy of these two data collection tools, and examine space use. Both data collection tools yielded similar results with respect to affiliative behaviors. Out of the six pairs of penguins, two pairs had substantially higher rates of copulatory behavior, and one of these pairs was the only pair to raise chicks in 2020 and 2022. The newest pair in the colony spent very little time together and had low rates of copulatory behavior. Heat maps generated by Zoo Monitor provide useful information regarding location and proximity of mated pairs. Our results suggest that time spent in proximity may be a good indicator of breeding success and be useful in managed care settings to assess likelihood of reproductive success.
Session: Poster Session 1
Noise raises auditory thresholds of Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus)
Megan Gall, Glenn Proudfoot
Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY, USA

Animals rarely acquire and use acoustic information in perfectly quiet and anechoic environments. However, most behavioral and physiological investigations of auditory processing occur under exactly these conditions. For nocturnal hunters like Northern saw-whet owls (Aegolius acadicus), even low levels of natural noise are likely to raise auditory thresholds, interfere with acoustic detection and localization, and ultimately reduce prey capture success. Here we investigated the effects of acoustic noise on the auditory thresholds of Northern saw-whet owls. We found that even low levels of noise, typical of relatively quiet forests, were sufficient to increase auditory thresholds across a range of frequencies. The signal to noise ratio required for detection of the sound (i.e. critical ratio) was relatively constant across frequencies from 0.5-6 kHz, regardless of the noise level. However, critical ratios deviated from this pattern at 8kHz. These data suggest that increasing levels of noise will impact the ability of Northern saw-whet owls to detect and localize prey items acoustically, in turn affecting hunting success in noisy conditions, as has been demonstrated previously.  
Session: Virtual Talks
Effect of environmental disturbance on the behavioral immunity of the ant Ectatomma ruidum
Dumas Galvez1,2,3
1Universidad de Panama, Panama, Panama, Panama, 2Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama, Panama, Panama, 3Coiba AIP, Panama, Panama, Panama

Behavioral immunity is an important component used by insects to cope with parasites. This includes behaviors to avoid parasites or in the case of an occurring infection, behaviors to eliminate or reduce parasite growth. Social insects provide a system to study behavioral immunity given that they live in dense groups with a high risk of parasite transmission. However, little is known on how the ability of a social insect to deploy a behavioral immune response could be affected by external factors. In this work, I investigated whether the ability of the ant Ectatomma ruidum to perform self- (SG) and allogrooming (AG) against the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum was influenced by habitat disturbance. I compared in ants from forest and disturbed habitats the rates of SG by a focal ant and AG performed on the focal ant by two nestmates. Ants from both habitat types performed higher SG and AG against the fungus as compared to control inoculations. Remarkably, ants from forest habitats performed higher rates of AG than ants from disturbed habitats. This works illustrates how behavioral responses can be influenced by environmental factors, and I discuss its implications.
Session: Change for Change's Sake: Behavioral Plasticity
Sampling behavioral data from YouTube: a case study on how mockingbirds respond to nest predators
David E Gammon1, Christine M Stracey2, Kirstie Savage3
1Elon University, Elon, NC, USA, 2Guilford College, Greensboro, NC, USA, 3TruHearing, Draper, UT, USA

Some of the most important animal behaviors are observed in the field only rarely, e.g., predation, giving birth, copulation. Dramatic behavioral events like these often attract attention from humans who are not scientists, but who like to upload animal videos to social media. These unwitting "citizen scientists" generate a potential treasure trove of raw video footage that might be mined by professional scientists. We used YouTube to extend our field studies on how northern mockingbirds respond to common nest predators. Data from over 60 YouTube videos reinforced our earlier finding that mockingbirds "label" each type of nest predator using a different call type. We discuss the opportunities and challenges in both research and teaching for collecting data from animal videos posted to social media.
Session: Let me show you the way: Study Design
Resilience and sustainability of the whale watching industry in northwestern Mexico.
Omar Garcia-Castañeda1, Lorena Viloria-Gomora2, Enrique Martínez-Meyer3
1Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán, Ciudad de México, Mexico, 2Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur, La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico, 3Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán, Ciudad de México, Mexico

The gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) mates and has its young in the Bahía Magdalena-Bahía Almejas lagoon complex in Baja California Sur, among other lagoons in Mexico where the tourist activity of Whale Watching (WW) is also carried out. In fact, it is one of the species that collects the most money per year. However, from 2019 to the present, an unusual mortality event, believed to be associated with climate change, has been reported in its feeding area. This is also causing socioeconomic implications in WW areas. That is why the objective of this work is to develop an analysis to know the current state of the WW in Bahía Magdalena-Bahía Almejas, evaluating its resilience to the effects of climate change on the ecology and behavior of the gray whale. For this, for the first time, a systematic monitoring of WW is being combined with workshops and surveys are being implemented to related actors, including the government sector, service providers and tourists. In addition, a study of alternative activities that help reduce the effects of climate change in the region is being included.
Session: Poster Session 1
Phototactic responses of branchiopod crustaceans to broad spectrum light: tadpole and fairy shrimp.
Maria Gaughan, Nicolas Lessios
Assumption University, Worcester, MA, USA

Branchiopods are a group of crustaceans that are often found in temporary freshwater habitats. They are thought to predominantly use light cues for orientation within their habitat and the water column. Tadpole shrimp (Triops) and fairy shrimp (Streptocephalus mackini) have more spectral photoreceptor classes than might be expected given their reduced nervous systems for processing visual information. Other organisms with many spectral photoreceptor classes tend to have more complex nervous systems which process spectral information as color vision. We tested how tadpole shrimp respond to broad spectrum light using phototactic behavioral assays. Phototactic responses are found in most aquatic crustaceans. While light in natural environments varies, it tends to include a broad spectrum. It is unknown if broad spectrum light is processed by the same neural circuits as narrow spectrum light. We ask: How do tadpole shrimp respond behaviorally to broad spectrum light and what can that tell us about their visual system mechanisms? In this talk, I compare the findings of the phototactic behavior of tadpole shrimp and fairy shrimp ​​in broad spectrum, and narrow spectrum light.
Session: You Got A Lot of Nerve: Neuroethology
Sun-loving orb-web spiders have slender bodies
Felipe M. Gawryszewski, Leonardo Ferreira-Sousa, Pedro N.R. Zepp, Paulo C. Motta
Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil

Sun-exposed animals are prone to heat stress. High body temperatures may compromise basic activities, possibly leading to death. Generally, smaller body sizes have lower equilibrium temperatures than larger ones. However, larger body sizes frequently have selective advantages. These contrasting pressures may lead to alternative body shapes. Several arthropods adjust their body orientation according to the Sun's position. In these animals, a cylindrical body allows postures that reduce the body surface exposed to sunlight. Therefore, we expect to find more elongated bodies in Sun-exposed species, as they are more likely to suffer from heat stress. We classified the likelihood of Sun-exposure of female orb-web spiders (Araneidae; N = 1024 species) and measured their body elongation. We found that Sun-exposed species evolved more elongated bodies than Sun-protected ones. In addition, a heat transfer model coupled with meteorological data revealed that elongation decreases the risk of heat stress. Therefore, body elongation may expand the climate niche of orb-weavers. Overall, our results indicated that Sun exposure influenced the evolution of body shapes in araneid species.
Session: For the love of others: Social evolution and behavior
The adaptive value of modulating aggression across breeding stages in a competitive female songbird
Elizabeth M George1,2, Abigail M Weber1,3, Kimberly A Rosvall1
1Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, IN, USA, 2Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA, 3Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, USA

In seasonally breeding animals, net benefits of territorial aggression should change with shifting demands of competition and parental care; however, there are few tests of the adaptiveness of plasticity in aggression across reproductive stages. We explore this in the tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), a species in which females compete for limited nesting sites. We tracked the aggression of nearly 100 females across three stages: shortly after territory-establishment, during incubation, and with chicks. Based on the direction and magnitude of aggression changes between stages, we identified four plasticity 'types'. We then tested for differences in morphology and fitness metrics among those types. Notably, 33% of the population did not change in aggressiveness over the season, though they did not appear to suffer fitness costs from this lack of plasticity. A further 16% of the population cycled between relatively high, low, and then high aggression again; this hyperplasticity was associated with notable fitness costs. Results presented here shed light on some of the complex drivers and consequences of individual variation in behavioral plasticity across reproductive contexts.
Session: Allee Symposium
Cannabidiol improves fish welfare
Percilia C. Giaquinto1,2, Marina S. Bellot1, Isabela I. Guermandi1, Joao Favero-Neto1,2, Bruno Camargo-dos-Santos1
1São Paulo State University, Botucatu , Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2CAUNESP – Aquaculture Center, São Paulo State University , Joboticabal, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a substance derived from Cannabis sativa, widely studied in medicine with positive effects on humans, and presents anxiolytic proprieties and decreases aggressiveness and stress in other mammals. Therefore, CBD has the potential to increase welfare in reared animals, by reducing negative states experienced in captivity environments. We tested the effect of three CBD doses (1, 10, and 20 mg/kg) on aggressiveness, stress, and reproductive development of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) a worldwide fish reared for farming. CBD mixed with fish food was offered to isolated fish for 5 weeks. The 10 mg/kg dose decreased fish's aggressiveness, whereas 20 mg/kg attenuated non-social stress. Both doses decreased the baseline cortisol level and increased the gonadosomatic index. However, CBD 1 and 10 mg/kg doses decreased the spermatozoa number. No CBD doses affected feeding and growth variables. CBD supplementation exhibits high potential to benefit animals' lives on an integrative-based welfare approach. We showed for the first time that CBD as a tool to increase non-mammal welfare, presenting potential to be explored in husbandry and captivity species.
Session: Keep me happy: Animal behavior and welfare in captivity
The role of stimulus congruence and intensity during multimodal learning in honey bees
Oswaldo Gil-Guevara, Andre J. Riveros
Departamento de Biología. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales. Universidad del Rosario, Bogota, Columbia

Multimodal integration is a neuronal process responsible for the synergistic merging of two or more sensory modalities. Such integration affects all behaviour and is particularly important during ecological tasks requiring learning and memory skills, such as foraging or pollination. Several rules of multisensory integration have been proposed. The Principle of Inverse Effectiveness (PoIE) establishes an inverse relationship between the intensity of the unisensory components to the probability of integration. On the other hand, the temporal rule predicts maximal multisensory enhancements when signals are presented simultaneously. Discrepancies among the senses are expected to occur, due to the biophysical differences. Hence, a certain time window of integration is also predicted. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the intensity and synchrony level of the components of bimodal stimuli (olfactory and visual). Only at low intensities, significant differences were detected between synchronic and asynchronous stimulation, as well as between different orders of presentation. We discuss our findings within the context of honey bee learning and memory.
Session: Virtual Posters
Do dogs have Williams-Beuren Syndrome? Transposons, behavior & training success in assistance dogs
Gitanjali E. Gnanadesikan1, Dhriti Tandon2, Emily E. Bray1,3, Evan L. MacLean1, Bridgett M. vonHoldt2
1University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA, 2Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA, 3Canine Companions for Independence, Santa Rosa, CA, USA

Williams-Beuren Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder in humans—caused by the deletion of 28 genes—involving hyper-sociability and cognitive deficits. In canines, the homologous region shows a strong signature of selection in dog-wolf comparisons. Within this region, four loci with structural variants derived from transposons have been associated with social behavior in dogs and wolves. We conducted a large cohort study of 1,001 dogs from a population of assistance dogs, including both successful graduates and those released from the training program for behavioral reasons. Bayesian mixed models revealed associations between their genotypes and a variety of behavioral measures, including separation-related problems and stranger-directed fear. Furthermore, we found moderate differences in the genotypes of dogs who graduated versus those who did not. Insertions in GTF2I showed the strongest association (β = 0.26, CI5-95% = -0.08 - 0.61), indicating a 30% increased chance of success with one insertion. Our results provide insight into the role of these loci in dog sociability and especially the hyper-sociable phenotypes of assistance dogs in this population.
Session: Nature AND Nuture: Genetics & Evolution
The Advantages and Benefits of Telecommunication Animal Behavior Therapy
Jill A. Goldman
DJG Animal Behavior Services, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Remote Telecommunication (telephone, e-mail, video) or virtual animal behavior therapy services increased as a direct consequence of COVID-19.  A service that was once a relatively dormant option to in-home visits, became a staple and surprising vehicle for increased client retention, and subsequent improved animal behavioral health.  The data reflect the number of virtual companion animal behavior cases from a Los Angeles based Animal Behavior Clinic (4/2020 - 3/2022) including initial contact (consultation, helpline) and follow-up sessions.  When cases were divided by year and annual data compared (4/2020 - 3/2021 v. 4/2021 - 3/2022), the number of virtual consultations remained unchanged (82 v 81) but the follow-up sessions increased 95% (99 v 175) from the previous year.  Prior research, albeit limited does support the efficacy of remote animal and human behavior therapy.  Data from pre-Covid year will be presented, as well as the identified short-term and long-term advantages (e.g., animal welfare, commericial) of remote telecommunication, and its limitation and hybrid solutions.
Session: Virtual Posters
No evidence for fitness benefits of mate preferences in female lesser waxmoths
Dariana Gomez, Flavia Barbosa
Lake Forest College, Lake Forest, IL, USA

Even though female mate choice is widespread among animals, we still lack a full understanding of the fitness value of female mating preferences in species where females do not gain direct benefits from mates. Males of the lesser waxmoth Achroia grisella produce ultrasonic signals to attract females, and females prefer signals with faster pulse rates. However, it is not known whether females benefit from mating with more attractive males. We hypothesize that females may benefit by a number of non-mutually-exclusive mechanisms: (1) producing more offspring, (2) producing more attractive male offspring, (3) producing more fecund female offspring, and (4) producing offspring with a male-biased sex ratio. We tested this by mating females with males varying in attractiveness and allowing them to oviposit and the offspring to develop to adults. We then looked at the relationship between the father's attractiveness and the number, mass, and sex ratio of his offspring. Overall, we found no evidence that females benefit from mating with more attractive males in lesser waxmoths, and we suggest the sensory bias hypothesis as a potential explanation for our results.
Session: Poster Session 1
Social and cognitive performances are associated with neuronal density in a monogamous cichlid fish
Eliane Gonçalves-de-Freitas1,2, Manuela Lombardi Brandão1, Rui F. Oliveira3,4
1Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP, São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil, 2Aquaculture Center of UNESP, São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil, 3Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciências, Oeiras, Portugal, 4ISPA - Instituto Universitário de Ciências Psicológicas, Sociais e da Vida, Lisbon, Portugal

Social behavior in animals is assumed to be associated with a complex brain and a cognitive ability to cope with unpredictable social environments. Here, we examined associations among sociality (aggressiveness, conspecific proximity), cognitive flexibility (inhibitory control task), and brain (density of neurons in the telencephalon, diencephalon, optic tectum, and cerebellum) in the cichlid, Geophagus brasiliensis, whose male and female show coordinated parental care. We found no differences between males and females; but found a significant association between neuronal density in the optic tectum and cerebellum with latency to engage in fights and higher proximity of conspecifics. Specifically, we found a positive correlation between neurons in the optic tectum and aggressiveness, and a negative correlation between cerebellar neurons with fights. Cerebellar neurons were also positively correlated with the fish that faster showed inhibitory control. These results suggest that the optic tectum is probably associated with visual evaluation of conspecifics' social behavior, whereas the cerebellum, with refined motor performance on cichlid's sociability and cognitive ability.
Session: Bridging Brain and Behavior in the Americas
Field wanderers under the moonlight: sexual behavior and size dimorphism in a Uruguayan wolf spider
Verónica Gonnet1,2,3, Leticia Bidegaray-Batista2, Miguel Simó3, Anita Aisenberg1
1Departamento de Ecología y Biología Evolutiva, Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable, Montevideo, Montevideo, Uruguay, 2Departamento de Biodiversidad y Genética, Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable, Montevideo, Montevideo, Uruguay, 3Sección Entomología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Montevideo, Uruguay

Knowledge about Allocosinae spiders is scarce. However, studies have been performed in Allocosa senex and A. marindia from South America. Both species show non-traditional sexual traits for spiders: females are smaller than males and they are the mobile and courting sex. These patterns could be related with the harsh coastal environment where they live. Data of species from other habitats is scarce, making difficult comparisons. Here, we identify an Allocosinae species from grasslands, study sexual size dimorphism and reproductive behavior. We studied morphology and phylogenetic relationships. We identified the species as Paratrochosina amica. In 2 samplings (3 days each), we collected 17 females - 9 males (IIBCE) and 18 females - 9 males (Melilla) (Montevideo, Uruguay). We did not find significant differences in body size among sexes (ANOVA, F=2.46, p=0.12). We obtained 10 matings under laboratory conditions and in all the cases males initiated courtship and approached females. Courtship averaged 324.0±327.4 s and copulation 386.4±801.3 s. Based on our results, P. amica would not show the non-traditional sexual traits reported in coastal Allocosinae species.
Session: Sexy Time: Mating Behavior and Sexual Selection
Lekking Behavior in a Neotropical Hummingbird Explained by "Hotshot" but not by Kin Selection Model
Clementina Gonzalez1, Nataly Cruz-Yepez1, 2, Juan Francisco Ornelas2
1Instituto de Investigaciones sobre los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico, 2Instituto de Ecologia A. C., Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico

Several models have been proposed to explain the evolution of leks. According to kin selection theory, male skewed reproductive success leads unsuccessful males to join successful relatives to increase their inclusive fitness. The "hotshot" model proposes that certain males are successful at attracting mates, whereas less successful males cluster around these hotshots increasing the chances to obtain more matings. Here, we test in the Wedge-tailed Sabrewing, a lekking hummingbird with an extraordinary vocal capacity, the "hotshot" and kin selection models. We genotyped 126 hummingbirds at 10 microsatellite loci and estimated relatedness among males. Then, we determined traits involved in males' reproductive success and identified most successful males according to the number of visits by females. Relatedness was not significant and most males were unrelated within leks. Males that sang more frequently were the most successful, and the distance to successful males were correlated with the number of females visits. Our results do not support the idea of kin selection as an important force acting on the formation of leks in this species, but do support the "hotshot" model.
Session: Poster Session 2
Reframing the acoustic niche partitioning hypothesis: Addressing neglected dimensions of signal interference.
Katherine Gonzalez1, Ximena Bernal 1,2
1Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA, 2Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Ancón, Panama, Panama

Communication mediates social interactions and resource acquisition, however, occurs in noisy environments. It has been proposed that to avoid acoustic interference, signal differentiation has allowed species to communicate (acoustic niche partitioning hypothesis, ANPH). While niche partitioning is often assumed, its generality is unclear and alternative mechanisms that shape signal community structure are rarely considered. We performed a systematic review to identify the overall support for this hypothesis, methodological approaches used to evaluate signal partitioning and review core ANPH concepts. We focus on three major taxonomic groups that rely on acoustic signals: insects, anurans, and birds. Our critical assessment of ANPH literature reveals unaddressed conceptual challenges and neglected theoretical dimensions of communication that also explain signal differentiation. We discuss the challenge of  past competition based on current traits and the use of such evidence to support ANPH. We provide a multidimensional approach that frames signal evolutionary ecology, considering the full communication dyad, and discuss alternative mechanisms for patterns consistent with ANPH.
Session: Chirps, Croaks and more! Acoustic Communication
Testing Wickler's Hypothesis: Cichlids are unable to distinguish eggs from egg spots in the wild
Zeke Gonzalez, Scott Juntti, Karen Carleton
University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA

Cichlid fish have undergone explosive radiation in a process aided by sexual selection. Thus, phenotypes that contribute to reproduction may explain the rate of radiation. One such phenotype is the presence of circular spots on the anal fin of the haplochromine cichlids. In 1963, Wickler postulated this phenotype acts as an egg mimic which enhances male fertilization success. However, it remained unclear whether cichlids can distinguish between eggs and egg spots in their natural environment. In this study, we quantified the color of the eggs, egg spots, and anal fins of two haplochromine species (Metriaclima benetos and Astatotilapia burtoni). Using a receptor noise limited (RNL) visual model, we found that these species are unable to distinguish the colors of eggs and egg spots in the lighting of their natural habitat. Further, only M. benetos could distinguish the color of egg spots from anal fins. This study supports Wickler's egg spot mimicry hypothesis and potentially explains species differences in the roles of egg spots as sexually selected traits. It further points out the importance of avoiding human biases in quantifying what colors fish can and cannot distinguish.
Session: Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus, or Is It the Opposite? Sexual conflict
What did you say? Testing the acoustic transmission properties of song in a near threatened oscine.        
Hans R. Gonzembach, Rindy C. Anderson
Florida Atlantic University, Davie, Florida, USA

Songbirds are among the few taxa that exhibit vocal learning. This phenomenon leads to variation in the accuracy with which juveniles learn to sing. Song variation can be the result of copy errors made when juveniles learn songs from adults. However, it's unclear if abiotic factors contribute to song variation. In Bachman's sparrows (Peucaea aestivalis), some song types are highly shared and sung by many males in the population, while others are rare and sung by few individuals. I conducted playback experiments to test the idea that song type learning is influenced by the transmission properties of individual song types, leading to differential learning rates of song types within a population. Transmission properties of rare song types, including envelope correlation (P = 0.037) and tail-to-signal ratio (P = 0.010) degraded over shorter distances compared to common song types. Excess attenuation of common song types was greater over distance compared to rare song types (P = 0.039). While studies have tested the transmission properties of animal vocalizations, fewer have asked how the transmission properties of song types influence the frequency with which those types are learned.  
Session: Message in a bottle: Communication
Ant Scattering: Evaluating aggregation and consensus in Temnothorax ants after physical decentralization
Brooke Goodland, Zachary Shaffer, Stephen Pratt
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

Aggregation is a fundamental principle of animal behavior and is especially significant to highly social species, like ants. Ants often aggregate their workers and brood in a central nest. When a colony must abandon its nest, most species can effectively reach consensus on a new home. Ants of the genus Temnothorax are often a model for this collective decision-making, and decentralized cognition more broadly. Previous studies examine emigration by well-aggregated colonies, but can these ants also reach consensus when the colony has been scattered? Scattering may readily occur in nature if the nest is disturbed by accidents or predators. In our study, Temnothorax rugatulus colonies were randomly scattered in an arena and presented with a binary equal choice of nest sites. Results suggest scattered colonies can re-coalesce and reach consensus on a single nest. Consensus formation is slower and more complex than for aggregated colonies, with an immediate phase of multiple clusters eventually yielding to reunification. This suggests physical decentralization makes consensus more difficult. Continued analysis will focus on detailing a model for how scattered colonies reach consensus.
Session: Group chat: Communication and Social Behavior
In sync for Infants: Behavioral and Hormonal Signatures of Care in Biparental Poison Frogs
Billie C. Goolsby, Marc Soong, Lauren A. O'Connell
Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA

 Parental coordination occurs when mothers and fathers allocate distinct tasks to provide care to their offspring. One major challenge is how parents interpret offspring signals differently, but must synchronize their behavioral outputs to make care decisions. To understand how parents synchronize their behaviors, we studied the parental efforts of the biparental Mimetic Poison Frog Ranitomeya imitator. First, we analyzed how moms and dads use acoustic communication to coordinate care of their tadpoles and tested which tadpole signals correlate to parental care effort through continuous monitoring of tadpole nurseries through cameras and acoustic recordings. Our preliminary data suggest that males may use calls to mediate female behaviors, such as nursery homing and egg-provisioning for infants. We are currently quantifying circulating levels of steroid hormones of parents during varying stages of parenting to determine which androgens are elevated or lowered at specific parental care tasks. Together, these data suggest that interparent synchronization may be mediated by hormone levels and acoustic signaling, and that parental responsiveness depends on infant signal.
Session: Virtual Posters
Social interactions during conditioned place preference tests in courting and paired zebra finches.
Jeremiah S Gorman1, Chelsea M Haakenson2, Gregory F Ball2, Nora H Prior1
1Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA, 2University of Maryland College Park, College Park, Maryland, USA

Zebra finches are a small songbird that forms strong life-long partnerships, which are actively maintained year-long. This makes zebra finches an excellent study species to ask whether the mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of a pair bond are different. Our lab previously found evidence, using a Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) paradigm, that courting females, but not paired, find their male partner rewarding. This effect was not driven by differences in copulations between courting and paired birds. Here we asked whether other differences in the social interactions between males and females could explain the reinforcing value of a male partner. Using a transcribing software, ELAN,  male contributions to social interactions were scored including: proximity to the female, courtship behavior, song, and aggressive behavior. Further analysis will reveal whether features of social interaction, not pair-bonding per se, determine how rewarding females find their male partners.
Session: Virtual Posters
Best Seat in the House: Favored Spots and Space Use in Colony Housed Shelter Cats
Treya Gough, Malini Suchak, PhD
Canisius College, Buffalo, New York, USA

3.2 million cats get surrendered to U.S. shelters annually. Current guidelines for colony rooms make recommendations for the amount of floor space, but fail to take into account vertical space and availability of resources. Within a colony room, there are an array of resources and structures to be utilized such as shelves, benches, and towers. We aimed to better understand how colony housed cats use their space and resources relative to each other, and how this changes depending on the number of cats sharing the space. Using scan sampling methods and a 3-dimensional map, we examined whether or not shelter cats in colony housing possess preferred spots, and how much use of preferred spaces overlap between cats. Borrowing methods from spatial ecology, we calculated electivity and niche overlap indices for the cats and their resource use. We found that cats exhibit strong preferences for favored spots, and as more cats are added to the room, cat space and resource use decreases, as does niche overlap. Our findings have considerable welfare implications and can be used to make recommendations to shelters about availability of resources in colony rooms. 
Session: Poster Session 1
Post-oviposition behavior in the glass frog Espadarana prosoblepon and its implications for offspring survival
Johana Goyes Vallejos1, José Sandoval2, Viky Calero-Loría2
1University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA, 2Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica

Parental care constitutes any behavior from the parents benefiting the offspring. In glass frogs (Centrolenidae), several species exhibit egg attendance as a form of parental care. Experimental evidence for this has been obtained for a small subset of species within the family, including a handful of species with "first-night" care where removal of the care-giving parent decreases offspring survival. Because this behavior lasts only for a few hours (< 3 h), few studies have explored its functional significance. The Emerald glass frog Espadarana prosoblepon is one of the few species with putative "first-night" care, but whether this behavior increases embryonic survival had never been explored. We carried out a female-removal experiment in a population found in Southwestern Costa Rica. We found that female presence does not influence embryonic survival, and thus it may not provide any demonstrable benefit to the offspring. Refining our knowledge on post-oviposition behavioral variation (male or female care, no care) is critical for understanding overall patterns of parental care evolution across frogs.
Session: Bringing Up Baby: Parental Behavior
A Novel Look Into Associative Learning and Long-Term Memory Retention in Pantherophis guttatus
Adam Green
Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC, USA

Although learning and cognition have been extensively studied in mammals and birds, little is known about the cognitive abilities of non-avian reptiles. Previous studies have shown that lizards and tortoises are capable of higher cognitive functions; however, few studies have used snakes as model organisms. This experiment looked at the cognitive abilities of 16 corn snakes, Pantherophis guttatus, using operant conditioning and reversal learning. The snakes were conditioned to associate small food rewards with a scented stimulus (lemon or lavender). To do so, they were placed into an arena where they had to choose between two tunnels, one marked with each scent. If the snakes chose the correct tunnel, they were given a pinky mouse as a reward. Once they were able to choose the correct tunnel 90% of the time, the identities of the correct and incorrect scents were reversed, requiring the snakes to inhibit their learned responses. After the initial habituation to the stimuli, the snakes were able to reliably choose the correct tunnel during the acquisition and reversal phases of the experiment, showing they are capable of both associative learning and inhibition of learned responses.
Session: Poster Session 1
Chemical communication in a cooperative breeding bird
Leanne A. Grieves, James S. Quinn, Greg F. Slater
McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

I examine whether smooth-billed anis, Crotophaga ani, use odour to distinguish group members from non-members and synchronize breeding. Anis lay eggs in a shared nest and all adults cooperate to rear the young, but they also compete via ovicide. In synchronous groups, females lay their eggs around the same time, losing fewer eggs to ovicide than females in asynchronous groups. Synchronous groups thus have greater reproductive success. Ani eggs are large and costly to produce. This, combined with extensive egg loss in asynchronous groups, suggests that mechanisms enhancing synchrony should be important for anis. Body odour changes with breeding condition in many species, which may provide information about reproductive status. First, I evaluate evidence for shared group odour that may allow anis to distinguish group members from non-members. Then, I test the prediction that the more similar group odours are, the more synchronously anis will lay and less ovicide they will experience. By identifying chemical cues that help coordinate laying and affect breeding success, this research could change our understanding of communication in social birds.
Session: Message in a bottle: Communication
WHAT is CANINE COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY?
Billie Groom
UPWARD Dogology, Regina, SK, Canada

Canine Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CCBT) is a formula adhering to the principles of CBT. It is scientifically proven to address behavioral issues relating to anxiety and aggression, ones associated with the adolescent stage, and ones common among rescued and adopted dogs. CCBT establishes and applies transferable skills that change perception to change behavior. CCBT is effective with dogs over the age of six months whose behaviors are driven by preconceived thought patterns, emotions, and learned behaviors. By establishing transferable skills that change perception and provide options, dogs choose to change behavior. Although different from Conditioning methods in the application and purpose, the two work well together to address the needs of all dogs. In this talk, I will introduce myself, discuss my work/studies, explain the core concepts of CCBT, how it differs from Conditioning methods, why it is effective, and the benefits of CCBT.  
Session: Virtual Talks
Advertisement predicts male success in acquiring new clutches in an arachnid with paternal care
Laís A. Grossel1, Glauco Machado2
1Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 2Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil

According to the "essential male care" hypothesis, when paternal care does not conflict with mate acquisition, males should allocate available resources not only to offspring care, but also to advertisement of their quality to acquire further mates. This hypothesis has never been tested, and our main goal is to fill this gap using the harvestman Iporangaia pustulosa as a study model. Males of this species care for the eggs and have a sexually dimorphic pair of glands that deposit chemical signals around the oviposition site. We created four experimental groups with caring males: good condition with glands not blocked; good condition with glands blocked; poor condition with glands not blocked; and poor condition with glands blocked. Then, we recorded the males that received new clutches in the next 30 days. Our results indicate that males with non-blocked glands have a higher chance of acquiring new clutches when compared with males with blocked glands. Body condition did not affect the chances of acquiring new clutches. These results contradict the "essential male care" hypotheses, according to which the advertisement would always be a reliable indicator of male care and quality.
Session: No pain, no mate: Sexual Selection and Alternative Tactics
Climate change reshapes Arctic seabird behavior, threatening to magnify effects of contamination  
Andrea S Grunst1, Melissa L Grunst1, Katarzyna Wojczulanis-Jakubas2, David Grémillet1,3, Jérôme Fort1
1University of La Rochelle, La Rochelle, France, 2University of Gdański, Gdański, Poland, 3Percy Fitzpatrick Institute of African Ornithology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa

Behavioral plasticity can allow animals to adapt to climate change, but is limited by physiological constraints, which may be increased by chemical contamination. We explored how environmental conditions linked to climate change affect time activity budgets (TABs) and behavioural performance traits in an Arctic seabird, the little auk (Alle alle), and asked whether mercury (Hg) exposure reduces scope for behavioral plasticity. We used accelerometers to compile behavioral data across multiple years at two colonies (Ukaleqarteq, Greenland; Hornsund, Svalbard). Warm sea surface temperature (SST) and low sea ice coverage in Greenland reduced time resting at the colony and on ice, and increased flight time and dive duration. At Hornsund, where SST was warmest, birds spent a high proportion of time diving. Mercury burdens were not associated with TABs or dive and flight durations. However, at Ukaleqarteq, where dives were longer and Hg was higher, birds with elevated Hg increased inter-dive intervals between long dives. As dive duration increased at Ukaleqarteq with warming SST, Hg exposure might increasingly affect dive patterns and foraging efficiency as climate change progresses. 
Session: Virtual Talks
Energy budgets approach energetic ceilings in a keystone Artic seabird exposed to climate change
Melissa L Grunst1, Andrea S Grunst1, Katarzyna Wojczulanis-Jakubas2, David Grémillet1,3, Jérôme Fort1
1University of La Rochelle, La Rochelle, France, 2University of Gdański, Gdański, Poland, 3Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa

In response to climate change, animals may adjust time activity budgets (TABs) to maintain energy balance and buffer fitness. Shifts in TABs may stabilize daily energy expenditure (DEE), but could also force costly increases in DEE, or reflect decreases in DEE, necessitated by energetic constraints. We used accelerometer data to examine the stability versus plasticity of DEE in two colonies (Ukaleqarteq, East Greenland; Hornsund, Svalbard) of a keystone Arctic seabird, the little auk (Alle alle), in response to climate change-sensitive drivers of resource availability in Arctic marine ecosystems: sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice coverage (SIC). We also explored whether exposure to an important chemical contaminant, methylmercury (MeHg), modified DEE. At Ukaleqarteq, DEE increased in association with low SIC and high SST, a pattern also supported using previously published data across three colonies. At Hornsund, DEE was not linked to SST, but SST was high and variation low, and birds operated close to hypothesized energetic limits. MeHg did not affect DEE in either population. Fitness currently appears stable, but a threshold may be reached beyond which costs ensue.
Session: Virtual Talks
Behavior and Fitness Consequences of Host Selection by Frog-Biting Mosquitoes
Ethan A. Guardado1, Sydney Moeller1, Shilpi Singh1, Katherine González1, Ximena E. Bernal1,2
1Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA, 2Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Ancón, Panamá, Panama

Sensory and behavioral adaptations allow blood-sucking insects to exploit their hosts. However, humans have introduced new species to ecosystems, making novel hosts available to blood-sucking insects, but it is unclear how they respond to these novel hosts. We investigated the feeding behavior of frog-biting mosquito Uranotaenia lowii in response to native and non-native species of frog hosts and the fitness consequences of such preference. We hypothesize that the evolutionary history between frog-biting mosquitoes and non-native anurans influences mosquito feeding strategies. To examine feeding behavior we fed mosquitoes with native (Hyla cinerea, Anaxyrus terrestris) and non-native (Osteopilus septentrionalis, Rhinella marina) anuran hosts. We exposed groups of ∼40 Ur. lowii individuals to one species of host at a time and examined their feeding behavior. We assessed the fitness consequences of feeding on both host types by tracking clutch size, offspring's survival and developmental rates. This research provides valuable insights on how biological invasions modulate ecological interactions as novel species are brought into communities.  
Session: Poster Session 1
Behavior of Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnakes (Crotalus adamanteus) on a University campus in Florida.
Ella Guedouar, Charles Gunnels IV, Wendy Brosse, John Herman, Matthew Metcalf
Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, Florida, USA

Human development replaces wild areas with infrastructure that interferes with species' natural behavior, pressuring behavioral plasticity for survival. However, wildlife may benefit from peri-urban development that incorporates natural areas into human landscapes. Florida Gulf Coast University's (FGCU) campus incorporates an eco-centric design that supports native wildlife. Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnakes (Crotalus adamanteus) populations have declined due to habitat loss and hunting. Peri-urban environments may support some snake species such as C. adamanteus. A long-term radio telemetry study of 17 individuals at FGCU shows that 37% of their time is spent near along edge habitats next to roads and sidewalks. This may be due to the thermal gradients or increased prey availability that edge habitats provide for snakes. However, C. adamanteus remain stationary and rarely rattle when encountered, which could reinforce their crypsis in an environment with large numbers of people. C. adamanteus may be a useful model for other snake species existing within a peri-urban environment, and their success can speak to the advantages that this design provides in support of wildlife.
Session: Poster Session 1
Lesson plan: Nesting birds of the world
Lauren M Guillette, Shaunak Mistry, Jessica Hewitt, Kalie Keays, Connor T Lambert, Andrés Camacho, Gopika Balasubramanian, Tristan Eckersley, Erfan Khalaji, Benjamin Whittaker, Julia Self, Cailyn Poole, Liam Nolet, Sara Blunk
University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada

Our team designed and delivered a freely available lesson plan entitled "Nesting Birds of the World." This lesson was designed for grade-1-aged (6-7 yrs) children to support the science curriculum in Alberta, CA in two topic areas: the needs of animals and plants, and building things. This lesson explores birds, the nests they build, and the behaviours associated with nest building. This lesson includes: (1) teacher's guide, (2) lesson (slideshow), (3) bingo activity (print and play), (4) colouring sheets, (5) "build your own nest" activity, (6) match the nest to the nest builder (slides/print version), (7) posters, (8) book list, (9) online interactive board (Padlet), and (10) feedback form. We included local and global examples of bird species and their nests so that it can be used by teachers and parents around the world. In the next year we plan to translate our work into French, an official language of Canada, but would like to also translate it into other languages. We received money from the Animal Behavior Society, through an outreach grant, and the Telus World of Science (Edmonton, Canada) to help purchase books and supplies for the activity for classrooms around Alberta.
Session: Poster Session 1
The Ontogeny of 'twitter' Calls in White Faced Capuchins (Cebus capucinus): Usage and Context.
Nicole C Guisneuf, Thore J Bergman
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

Primate vocalisations were historically considered fixed, without learning or modification. This inflexibility made it difficult to study the roots of our plastic communicative abilities. However, recent studies indicate evidence of developmental plasticity in primate vocalisations most notably in their context & usage. We investigate developmental changes in capuchin twitter calls. We examined the behavioural context around twitters of wild white-faced capuchin monkeys in the Taboga Forest Reserve in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Infants had the highest twitter rates & adults had the lowest rates. Juvenile twitters occurred in a social state significantly more than expected based on time spent being social (X2 (6, 26) = 85.03, p< .005). A Wilcoxon signed-ranks test revealed that the proportion of approaches associated with a twitter was significantly higher for juveniles than for adults (Z=37, p=0.01). This implies that only juveniles are using this call for close range social interactions, suggesting this is call has multiple functions & shifts in usage across development. With further research, this could add to growing evidence of flexibility & learning in primate communication
Session: Poster Session 2
Whether to stay or move? Insect larval dispersal, migration, and host plant choice under changing climate
Satyajeet Gupta, Peter Anderson
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Skåne County, Sweden

Interaction between insect herbivores and their host plants has evolved in response to coevolutionary dynamics other than selection by abiotic factors being the main driving force. This indicates that insect herbivores' behaviors like their movement (ability to disperse and migrate) may be affected both directly and indirectly by climate change. Dispersal is the key to survival for various organisms as it enables them to get access to better food sources, and more space to proliferate or find mates while migration may affect insect's performance and host-plant preference. Using Spodoptera littoralis as the model organism, we investigate its larval dispersal ability and migration between different host plant species under elevated carbon dioxide conditions and its transgenerational effect when being reared under similar environmental conditions. Our results indicate that larval dispersal distance and migration between different host plants were affected by elevated carbon dioxide conditions, but the larvae were able to adapt in subsequent generations. We further figured out that change in the plant volatiles was one of the mechanistic causes that was driving these behaviors.
Session: Change for Change's Sake: Behavioral Plasticity
Intergroup encounters in wild pair-living owl monkeys (Aotus azarae) in Argentina
Leonie Gussone1, Alba Garcia de la Chica2, Eduardo Fernandez-Duque2,3,4
1Bonn University, Bonn, Germany, 2Owl Monkey Project - Fundación ECO, Formosa, Argentina, 3Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA, 4Universidad de Formosa, Formosa, Argentina

The function of intergroup encounters (IGEs) may differ substantially between species of different group sizes and social organizations. Research on IGEs in group-living primates has shown that their nature can vary widely from affiliative interactions to neutral or aggressive encounters. But still little is known about pair-living species. We extracted from the relational database of the Owl Monkey Project in Argentina data on 242 IGEs (11382 observations, 21 groups, and 10 solitary individuals) observed between 1997-2020 in wild owl monkeys, a pair-living, monogamous primate with extensive biparental care. To examine the non-mutually exclusive hypotheses of resource-, mate-, and infant defense we built four a priori sets of models to evaluate how well the social and environmental variables predicted the frequency of encounters and the behavioral responses. IGEs were more frequent, but less agonistic if a dependent infant was present, and more frequent and agonistic during the mating season when a subadult close to dispersal was present and when females were pregnant. Our results lend more support to the infant and mate defense hypotheses than they do to the resource defense one.
Session: Virtual Talks
Effects Of Anthropogenic Noise On The Acoustic Characteristics Of A Glass Frog In Urban Conditions
Ana C. Gutierrez-Vannucchi, Luis Sandoval
Laboratorio de Ecologia Urbana y Comunicacion Animal, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, San Jose, Costa Rica

The environment characteristics, including anthropogenic noise, may affect the way animals communicate acoustically, because they can mask the acoustic signals and make it difficult to communicate within urban sites. But some species may be able to modify their behavior to counteract the effects of anthropogenic noise in acoustic communication. Our understanding of the acoustic plasticity in amphibians to avoid acoustic masking by noise is still limited. Our goal is to describe the acoustic changes of the Fleischmann's Glass Frog Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni male calls to avoid the effects of anthropogenic noise. We selected two sites with different noise levels, and recorded a total of 56 calling males. We measured 7 different acoustic characteristics and compared them between populations and individuals. We found that calls differed between populations and individuals, in relation to the anthropogenic noise at the moment of recording. This result may indicate that calling males of this frog adjust their calling behavior to offset the effects of anthropogenic noise on their acoustic communication, and therefore could be able to survive in highly noisy urban conditions.
Session: Virtual Talks
Applied Animal Behavior: A Global Educational Opportunity
James C. Ha, Renee Robinette Ha
University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

Applied Animal Behavior is a relatively new field encompassing professional animal behaviorists who specialize in applying the principles of ethology to behavior issues in companion animals, livestock, and exotics.  Practioners work in homes, in shelters, in veterinary offices, in zoos and aquariums, and address animal welfare in laboratories and farm animals. Given that approximately 78 million dogs and 86 million cats are owned in the United States alone, there is clearly a large market for the treatment of companion animal behavior issues, yet to-date, the void is filled primarily by self-taught trainers rather than professionals with formal training and experience. In addition, less than 50% of veterinary schools and colleges offer behavior training in their programs, yet 50% of all pet euthanasia decisions are due to behavior problems. We will describe a unique global (online) educational opportunity at the University of Washington in Applied Animal Behavior, and discuss how it fits in with other educational programs and certifications This program provides a thorough theoretical and practical review of the current state of the field presented by academic professionals.
Session: Poster Session 1
Effects of Conspecific Density on Habitat Assessment in Red-backed Salamanders (Plethodon cinereus)
Eli Haines-Eitzen, Keith A. Tarvin
Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH, USA

We examined habitat assessment and exploratory behavior in male and female red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) when given choices between territories occupied by varying densities of conspecifics. We tested two alternative hypotheses: (1) invading salamanders prefer high conspecific density because it signals high quality habitat, versus (2) salamanders avoid high conspecific density because of increased risk of competition. Focal salamanders associated less with territories marked by multiple conspecifics than those marked by one individual. Focal salamanders exhibited more exploratory behavior in territories marked by multiple conspecifics and in unoccupied territories than in territories marked by one conspecific. Invading females spent more time near shelters, regardless of whether they were "occupied," than males. These results suggest that there is a greater perceived cost to invading P. cinereus of inhabiting territories occupied by multiple conspecifics than those occupied by individual conspecifics. This study also indicates that the benefit of invading occupied territory may be greater to females than males relative to the potential cost of increased competition.
Session: Think Twice: Predator-Prey Interactions
Aggression resetting between morphs of the flight polyphenic cricket Gryllus rubens
Christopher Hall1, Clayton Lindsay1, Patrick Guerra2, Oliver M. Beckers1
1Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky, USA, 2University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA

Males of many field cricket species fight each other in the context of mate acquisition, with previous fights having a carryover effect, i.e., males that lose an initial fight are less aggressive in an immediate subsequent fight ('loser effect'). Previous work has shown that this reduction in aggression can be reversed by motor activity, such as a short bout of flight when the losing male disperses. Gryllus rubens males are flight dimorphic, as males can be flight incapable or capable. We tested if aggression can be similarly reset in flight incapable males by forcing flight motor activity. Preliminary analysis suggests that flight incapable males that lost the previous fight were equally aggressive in the subsequent fight, no matter if they engaged in flight (motor activity) or not. This lack of reduction in aggression after losing might be beneficial to flight incapable males since they cannot avoid aggressive encounters as easily. Thus, in contrast to flight capable males, flight incapable males seem to lack an aggression resetting mechanism. Further analysis will compare aggression levels between flight incapable and capable males.
Session: Poster Session 1
Intraspecific variation in visual perception correlates with explorative but not social behaviours
Nadia Hamilton, Sam Matchette , Katherine Dunkley , James Herbert-Read
University of Cambridge , Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom

While there are distinct differences in the perceptual abilities of animals between species, less attention has been paid to the role of intraspecific variation in the perceptual abilities of individuals within populations. Indeed, whether differences in the perceptual abilities of individuals shape individuals' exploratory or social tendencies remains untested. I quantified individual differences in the visual perceptual abilities of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and asked whether individuals with relatively better visual perceptual abilities were more explorative and less likely to rely on social information. While individuals with better contrast sensitivity and visual acuity were quicker to explore a novel environment, these individuals were not more likely to associate with other conspecifics. My results demonstrate a link between individual differences in visual perceptual and exploratory behaviour, but not with social tendencies. I discuss my findings in relation to the trade-offs associated with increased investment in perception, and the constraints that perception may place on how individuals explore environments.  
Session: What is going to work? Team work!: Social Behavior
If memory serves: Do multimodal signals affect the working memory of female túngara frogs?
Olivia R Hamilton1, Logan S. James2,3, Kimberly L. Hunter1, Ryan C. Taylor1,3
1Salisbury University, Salisbury, MD, USA, 2University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA, 3Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Ancón, Panama

Across many taxa, males gather in leks to perform multisensory courtship displays for females. The dynamic nature of leks makes a female's ability to recall the location of individual signalers an important component of female mate choice. It is hypothesized that complex (especially multimodal) signals may improve a female's ability to remember, and thus discriminate among potential mates. To test this hypothesis, we employed robotic frogs and a blinding system in playbacks with female túngara frogs (Physalaemus (=Engystomops) pustulosus). Specifically, we asked if the visual component of a multimodal signal improves a female's ability to remember the location of a signaler. Our preliminary data suggest that the visual stimulus of a calling male túngara frog (the robotic frog), improves the ability of a female to recall the last known location of a calling male.
Session: Live and learn: Cognition and Learning
Proximity to a Conspecific Predicts Future Wound Inflammation During Healing in a Monogamous Rodent
Emma R. Hammond, Patrick K. Monari, Yiru Chen, Catherine Marler
University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA

Social affiliation with an opposite-sex mate reduces the inflammatory response in monogamous mammals, including the California mouse. It is less clear whether socially-dependent responses to inflammation are a result of pair-bonding or affiliation more broadly. We tested the following hypotheses: 1) affiliation between same-sex cagemates reduces wound size and inflammation; 2) same-sex conspecific housing faciliates healing with less inflammation compared to isolation; 3) oxytocin (OT), a hormone critical to social affiliation, hastens wound healing and reduces inflammation. Cagemate and isolated males and females each received a 3.5mm dermal wound and were assigned to receive either OT or saline every other day. Preliminary results revealed that same-sex cagemates that spent more time in close proximity prior to wounding had reduced wound size in the inflammatory phase. Surprisingly, isolated animals given OT had larger wound sizes, suggesting that OT combined with isolation may lead to a greater inflammatory response. These preliminary results underscore broad social affiliation as a regulator of inflammatory response, and suggest oxytocin as an underlying hormonal mechanism.
Session: Virtual Posters
Sexual dimorphism in fin size, shape, coloration, and its implications for animal behavior in killifish
Ruel Hanlan, Kasey Brockelsby, Rebecca Fuller
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA

Unpaired fins (i.e., dorsal, and anal fins) are critical to multiple behaviors in fish. One interesting aspect is that males and females use these fins for different behaviors. Males often use the dorsal and anal fins in signaling; males use the anal fins to direct sperm and sometimes clasp the female during spawning; both males and females use the fins for stabilization during swimming. This creates different selection pressures on males and females. Not surprisingly, the dorsal and anal fins are often sexually dimorphic in terms of size, shape, and coloration. Furthermore, the degree of sexual dimorphism can vary among populations and species. Here, I discuss the degree to which males and females differ in dorsal and anal fins, the degree to which this varies among populations and species, and the timing of when these differences emerge in relation to behavior and development.  
Session: Poster Session 1
Male mate-copying in a moth
Ally Harari1, Ariel Glezer 2, Rakefet Sharon 3,4
1Department of Entomology, The Volcani Center,l, Rishon lezion , Israel, 2ersity of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel, 3Northern Research & Development, MIGAL – Galilee Research Institute, Kiryat Sh’mona, Israel, 4Department of Science & Environment, Ohalo Campus, Tel-Hai College, Tel Hai, Israel

Mate copying, whereby individuals rely on the mate choice of others, is a known female alternative mating tactic in various taxa, whereas male mate copying is known from only a handful of examples. While female mate copying is mainly explained by difficulties in assessing the male quality and reducing searching efforts, male copying is challenging as mating with a mated female includes paternity sharing with the previously mated males. Male pink bollworm moths copy their rival males' mate choice. They approach mating couples, attempting to disengage the pair and mate with the freed female. Our study reveals that male moth mate-copying behavior is associated with the females' tendency to reject courting males and that mate-copying males are larger than mating males. We also found that copying behavior occurs before the male in copula transfers a full spermatophore to the female, hence, the risk of sperm competition is much reduced. We suggest that male mate-copying in this species aims to overcome female rejection by copying the success of other males in locating receptive females. Larger males copy the choice of smaller males that are inferior in frontal male combats
Session: Sexy Time: Mating Behavior and Sexual Selection
Are Individual Differences Repeatable? Untangling Behavioral Axes Using D. tinctorius Poison Frogs  
Faith O Hardin
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA

Recently, there has been increased interest in correlated individual differences. However, the represented species are highly skewed towards birds, mammals, and fish, with only 24 species of amphibians tested thus far. Of these studies in amphibians, many have failed to test for repeatability, a crucial aspect when attempting to draw consistent correlations between behavioral traits. Additionally, approaches vary, and many have been criticized for their inability to distinguish between discrete behaviors (i.e. boldness, activity, exploration). To explore individual differences in amphibians, I used Dendrobates tinctorius poison frogs and robust methods designed to tease apart behaviors. Each frog experienced the same set of trials three times: baseline movement in a familiar environment (activity), latency to move from a familiar to novel environment (boldness), and movement within both familiar and novel environments (exploration). Given the importance of consistent individual differences for understanding the proximate causes and ecological consequences of behavioral variation, we provide robust methodology for a grossly understudied taxonomic group.
Session: Poster Session 1
Relative Impacts of Four Spatial Scales of Movement on Social Grooming Networks in Vampire Bats
C. Raven A. Hartman, Gerald G. Carter
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

Social networks are typically created from associations at one particular spatial scale (e.g. roost sharing), such that associations at finer-grained scales (e.g. within roosts) are not observed in the network. A clear understanding social network structure therefore requires identifying the relative importance of different spatial scales of association, which then determine and constrain rates of social interaction, like allogrooming. Here, we use social data from wild and captive vampire bats to determine how grooming networks are shaped by the relative role of movement at four spatial scales: (1) switching roosts (2) switching crevices, (3) switching clusters, and (4) switching grooming partners. At each scale, we measure the empirical distribution of movement rates. We then incorporate all four movements simultaneously into agent-based simulations of virtual bats moving and interacting in a realistic fashion, with each simulation creating a possible grooming network. Finally, we use linear models to determine how a bat's grooming network centrality (degree, strength, eigenvector) is affected by each type of movement.
Session: Social Competency: An Integrative Approach to Understanding Connections Between Social Information, Decision-Making, and Cognition
Comparison of wildcat and domestic cat facial morphology caused by human influence
Madoka Hattori1, 2, Atsuko Saito3, Miho Nagasawa2, Takefumi Kikusui2, Shinya Yamamoto1
1Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan, 2Azabu University,, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan, 3Sophia University, Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan

For domestic animals, facial morphology is important in their interactions with humans.  In this study, we focused on the facial morphology of cats to clarify possible changes in facial morphology due to their relationships with humans. First, we compared the facial morphology of four categories of cats: African wildcats (Felis lybica), feral mongrels, owned domestic mongrels, and owned domestic purebred cats (Felis catus). The results showed that the nose length of domestic mongrels and purebreds was shorter than that of wildcats and feral mongrels. Two types of change in facial morphology can be considered: genetic change (domestication syndrome) and developmental change. Therefore, we conducted a questionnaire to investigate the influence of developmental change. There was no relationship between the number of ownership years and facial morphology. This suggest that the group differences are due to genetic rather than developmental effects. The evolution of cuter faces that humans like is an important change in cats' domestication process. On the other hand, the lack of difference of feral mongrels and wildcats may be due to the process of feralization.  
Session: Virtual Posters
Best Practices in K-12 Animal Behavior Education and Outreach for Young Researchers
Caitlin Hawley
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

Animal behaviorists often receive critical training in many of the steps of the scientific method, including designing research, collecting data, analyzing data, and writing publications for peer-reviewed journals. However, many career scientists receive little to no formal training in wider dissemination strategies such as education or outreach to K-12 populations in their local communities. Public dissemination of research has critical importance for increasing scientific literacy in local communities as well as mainstreaming alternative routes to share research with non-academic groups. In this poster, I present several of the empirically supported Best Practices in Science Education and Outreach applied specifically to the field of Animal Behavior. Utilizing pedagogical tools such as Sense of Place, Culturally Relevant Mentorship/Support, and Project-Based Learning can more effectively engage and support students in science learning. Moreover, these alternative routes of research dissemination are of great import for the scientific training of young animal behavior researchers.  
Session: Poster Session 1
The Power of Diversity, Curiosity, & Passion in Advancing Scientific Discovery, Innovation, & Communication
Eileen A Hebets
School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA

Humans are currently facing a multitude of threats - threats to our health, our environment, our way of life, and even to our continued existence. Arguably, scientific discovery, innovation, communication and understanding have never been more important. Similarly, as individual scientists, educators, and communicators, our role in society has never been more crucial. Scientists have a unique opportunity to enact change, but to take advantage of this opportunity, we need to (i) develop, implement, and champion initiatives that increase the diversity, equity, and inclusive nature of our communities, (ii) leverage our unique lived experiences and embrace our individual viewpoints, (iii) fuel, or reignite, our passion and curiosity for our science, and (iv) engage in and foster open, respectful dialogues with our communities. If we can accomplish all these things, I propose that we can solve any challenge the world puts before us. Throughout this talk, I will share stories of my own personal journey from lived experiences to scientific discovery. 
Session: Presidential Address
Manipulating food distribution alters social networks and information transmission in a food-caching bird
Virginia K Heinen1, Lauren M Benedict1, Benjamin R Sonnenberg1, Eli S Bridge2, Damien Farine3,4, Vladimir V Pravosudov1
1University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV, USA, 2University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA, 3University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 4Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior, Konstanz, Germany

Many animals use social information, but less is understood about how they form social networks, and how these networks influence social information use. We experimentally manipulated existing social networks in wild food-caching mountain chickadees by randomly dividing existing networks between two feeding locations. We manipulated networks at multiple sites at two montane elevations of different environmental harshness, where birds show differing use of social information. Following two weeks of network manipulation, we introduced novel feeders to test how the network restructuring affected information use. Chickadees at both elevations split their existing networks into two distinct communities during the manipulation. When subsequently discovering novel feeders, information transmission followed the new network structure at both elevations, though low elevation birds used social information more than high elevation birds. Our data show that chickadees can quickly adjust their network structure in response to changes in resource distribution, and that these changes influence their social information use.
Session: Live and learn: Cognition and Learning
Strength of preference for conspecifics in Darters (genus Etheostoma): A within-lab meta-analysis
Yseult Héjja-Brichard1, Julien Renoult2, Tamra Mendelson1
1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, USA, 2CEFE, Univ Montpellier, CNRS, EPHE, Univ Paul-Valery Montpellier, Montpellier, Occitanie, France

Studies investigating mate preference in Darters (Percidea: Etheostoma) usually find that species demonstrate a varying degree of preference for conspecifics over heterospecifics. To better understand what drives such trends, we conducted a meta-analysis of 12 published papers and two unpublished datasets from the Mendelson lab, representing 19 darter species. All studies used a dichotomous mate preference paradigm, opposing conspecific and heterospecific individuals. To compare effect sizes, we computed a Pearson's correlation coefficient r of the measured times spent in the association zones. We included several random effects in our multilevel model: study, species, genetic distance (cyt b), and phylogeny (variance-covariance matrix). Several moderators were also investigated: sex of the focal individual, effect of sympatry, and additional factors such as stimulus type and size of the association zone to account for variability in the experimental design. We found a positive correlation between effect size and genetic distance and a significant effect of sympatry, suggesting that preference for conspecifics depends on evolutionary relatedness and geographic context.
Session: Poster Session 2
Variation over space and time of shared contact call types of an introduced parrot
Dominique L Hellmich, Peyton E Willis, Timothy F Wright
New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, USA

Geographic variation in the acoustic structure of learned contact calls has been observed in many species, including several parrots. Less well known is the degree to which acoustic structure varies over time. We aimed to examine geographic and temporal variation in the contact calls of introduced rosy-faced lovebirds (Agapornis roseicollis) using broad surveys and marked individuals. Calls from birds in 10 populations across the Phoenix, AZ metro area were recorded from Nov 2017 to July 2020. In addition, individuals at a colony in Tempe, AZ were captured, marked, and recorded from May to July in 2019 and 2020. Roughly 600 total calls were recorded with the temporal spread of calls from known individuals ranging from 2 days to 14 months. An initial visual classification of the calls revealed 7 unique contact call types. This qualitative analysis was validated by a quantitative analysis in which calls clustered in acoustic space based on our predetermined types but not by time or geographic location. Our results support the presence of distinct contact call types within the introduced populations of lovebirds and suggest these types are structurally stable over extended timescales.
Session: Virtual Talks
Reward perception in wild bumblebees: effects of nectar quality and recent experience on foraging responses
Claire T. Hemingway, Smruti Pimplikar, Felicity Muth
University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA

Reward perception is critical for foraging animals to assess the value of different options. When evaluating rewards, animals may assess their value based on their objective payoff or their perceived value depending on recent experiences with similar rewards. Here we asked how daily experience with standing nectar influences foraging responses of wild bumblebees. We measured daily nectar concentration of bee-visited wildflowers (genus Penstemon) and then filled flowers on each inflorescence with known sucrose solutions that varied in concentration. Foraging bumblebees were presented with manipulated flowers, and we measured acceptance and visitation responses for each bee. We found that bees accepted more sucrose and visited more flowers per plant when offered higher concentration solutions. Importantly, we also found that both responses were influenced by bees' experience with the daily quality of nectar in their environment. When bees encountered better nectar in their environment, individuals were less likely to accept lower-quality rewards on manipulated plants. For visitation behavior, however, bees visited more flowers per plant when standing nectar was better. These results indicate that the fitness benefits of plant reward strategies may vary depending on other rewards available. Plants offering lower-quality nectar when bees encounter better nectar may benefit from more visits, while not suffering costs of nectar depletion by foraging bees.    
Session: Virtual Talks
Are Aspects of Horn Morphology Associated with Male Bighorn Sheep Reproductive Success and Female Mate-Choice?
Tanisha C Henry, Kathreen E Ruckstuhl
University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Sexual selection often leads to exaggerated secondary selected traits, such as large horns in bighorn rams (Ovis canadensis), which confer the bearer fitness benefits. These traits are the product of female mate choice and male-male competition for limited mating opportunities. Elaborate traits are expensive to develop and maintain, and thus an honest signal indicating the quality of an individual to potential mates. Bighorn rams establish a dominance hierarchy before the mating season, and monopolize breeding with one female at a time, leading to a high skew in reproductive success of dominant males. It is unclear to what degree females can exert mate choice when they are tended by a dominant male, but they could make themselves available to other males, indicating a limited degree of female mate choice. Morphological traits such as horn length and body mass, in addition to age and social experience, are predictors of reproductive success. I am investigating which aspects of a ram's horn shape (volume, circumference at the base, coil ratio) might be associated with his dominance rank and attractiveness to females.
Session: Virtual Talks
Is behavior related to venom composition and heart rate in the Australian funnel-web spider Hadronyche valida?
Linda C Hernandez Duran1, David T Wilson1, Tasmin L Rymer2
1College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD, Australia, 2College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD, Australia, 3Centre for Molecular Therapeutics, Australian Institute for Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD, Australia

Australian funnel-webs are the world's most venomous spiders, but their venom is a potential source for therapeutics and natural bioinsecticides. Numerous molecular approaches have tried to unveil factors driving venom complexity, but have rarely considered behavior and environmental conditions. We took an interdisciplinary approach to understand the relationship between behavior and morphophysiological traits in Hadronyche valida. We tested aggressiveness, boldness and activity across three contexts: i) predation using indirect and direct stimuli; ii) conspecific tolerance (aggression against a conspecific), and iii) exploration of a new territory. Tests were repeated three times. Venom was collected during the predation test. Heart rate and body size were measured after each set of behavioural experiments. Venom composition was influenced by spider size and aggression during conspecific tolerance. We also found correlations between some behavioural components and morphophysiological variables. Our study is the first to explore how behaviour and morphophysiological traits interact, contributing to a greater understanding of the function and evolution of funnel-web spider venoms.  
Session: Change for Change's Sake: Behavioral Plasticity
Do males or females affect testosterone levels in territorial male collared lizards, Crotophytus collaris?  
Diana K. Hews1, Jennifer L. Curtis2, Maria Thaker1,3, Troy A. Baird2
1Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN, USA, 2University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK, USA, 3Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, Karnataka , India

The challenge hypothesis (CH) proposes a link between territorial challenges and hormone levels, and posits that intrusions by competitors can prompt increased androgens, which then stimulate behaviors for territorial defense. Well supported in species in which paternal care is key to offspring success, most work on CH has been in birds. Testing the CH in collared lizards, we staged territorial intrusions (STIs) on free-ranging breeding territorial males. Plasma testosterone levels did not differ significantly between males presented with an intruder or a control stimulus, in spite of increased display and patrolling rates following the STIs. We also assessed seasonal patterns in mean testosterone, comparing them to a documented pattern of increased social interactions of males with females during their first and second egg clutches. In April and June, when courtship rates are highest, males had significantly higher mean plasma testosterone compared to the months of May and July.  Our results suggest that sexual context, and not direct male-male interactions, explains within-breeding season variation in plasma testosterone. The CH remains poorly supported for territorial lizards.
Session: Virtual Posters
Grasshopper Sparrow Warble Song Syllable Variation Across Populations
Rebecca A Hill, Bernard Lohr
University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Of the two song types grasshopper sparrow males sing, their secondary "warble" song has more variation in acoustic structure. The warble song contains many syllable types, some of which are shared between individuals both within and between different populations and subspecies. We performed a quantitative analysis using several acoustic measurements including duration, peak, low, and high frequency, bandwidth, number of notes, number of up- and down-sweeps, and number of frequency modulations. Using a principal components analysis to reduce dimensionality and visualize these acoustic measurements, we found considerable overlap in the acoustic space between syllable types of different populations and subspecies as a whole. Once we subdivided syllables based on the number of notes, shorter syllables showed some clustering patterns between different populations. Overall, results suggest a lack of local dialect structure, consistent with previous playback studies on grasshopper sparrows that show similar responses to warble songs within and between populations. Future work will explore how syllable order may differ between populations and subspecies.
Session: Virtual Posters
A Review of Behavioral Outcomes of Birth Order in Nonhuman Primates
Brianna A. Hobbs1, Evelyn Felix 1, Andrew G. Fulmer1
1Fort Lewis College, Durango, Coloardo, USA, 2Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska, USA, 3Fort Lewis College, Durango , Colorado, USA

Human birth order leads to significant intrafamilial behavioral variation. Avian hatching asynchrony may provide a model for comparable asymmetry as offspring of different competitive ability and developmental stage are raised in a shared space, but this phenomenon is rare among mammals, where litters are often separated by enough time for 1st borns to disperse. Human offspring of different ages and physical ability are often raised simultaneously, providing competition for resources and an early-life model of asymmetric peer interactions. We review the literature on effects of birth order in mammals, with a particular focus on nonhuman primates. We find that birth order in nonhuman primates have been studied primarily in the context of allocation of maternal care and later life rank and reproductive ability. In many of the cases we identify no significant influence on the dependent variable was identified, with some intriguing exceptions. Despite its significance in studies of human intrafamilial variation, little is apparently understood about birth order among our closest relatives. Our review contextualizes those findings to date and identifies directions for further research.
Session: Poster Session 2
Social competency: an integrative approach to social information, decision-making, and cognition
Elizabeth A. Hobson1, Marcela E. Benítez2
1University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 2Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Social species need to constantly make decisions about how to structure their social interactions to achieve both short and long-term payoffs. Several decades of research on sociality and cognition in animals has started to determine the kinds of information different species perceive and how they use this information to make more optimal decisions about future interactions, which we refer to as "social competency". However, many open questions remain: how do animals actually make decisions in a social context, what information do they use to make important social choices, and how "good" are these decisions in helping animals achieve their aims? In this symposium, we integrate these questions under the concept of social competency to highlight new work that detects the presence, use, and effectiveness of social decision-making. We bring together speakers using multiple perspectives, and working with both empirical and computational approaches, to synthesize our current understanding of social cognition across species and to highlight new directions for research that may be possible due to novel perspectives on how to detect and quantify social competency in animals.
Session: Social Competency: An Integrative Approach to Understanding Connections Between Social Information, Decision-Making, and Cognition
The Role of Secondary Acoustic Cues in Sea-finding by Green, Hawksbill, and Leatherback Sea Turtles
Bethany Holtz1, TriciaLyn Beamer2, Courtney Parks1, Gigi Hess1, Scott McRobert1
1Saint Joseph's University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, 2University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA

Hatchling leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), green (Chelonia mydas), and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) sea turtles detect aerial acoustic sounds from 50-1600 Hz. Natural beach wave sounds (50-1000 Hz) may serve as a secondary orientation cue for hatchlings. We measured the behavioral response of hatchlings to recorded beach surf sounds (72.0 dB re: 20 μPa) and simulated moonlight presented together at the same position (0°), opposite positions (180°), and 90° angles to each other. When wave sounds were presented alone, leatherbacks (p=0.096), greens (p=0.306), and hawksbills (p=0.076) oriented randomly in the arena. Leatherbacks and greens oriented toward the light source when moonlight was presented alone (p< 0.001), when moonlight was located at both the same (0°, p< 0.001), opposite (180°, p< 0.001), or 90° locations to the speaker. When moonlight was presented alone, hawksbills oriented toward the light (p=0.002), but when moonlight was positioned at the same (0°, p=0.175), opposite (180°, p=0.927), or 90° locations they oriented randomly in the arena. Beach waves sounds do not appear to act as a secondary orientation cue, but further research is needed for hawksbills.
Session: Virtual Talks
Pair-bond strength is repeatable and related to partner responsiveness in a wild corvid
Rebecca Hooper1,2, Luca G. Hahn1, Guillam E. McIvor1, Alex Thornton1
1Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom, 2Centre for research in Animal Behaviour, University of Exeter, Exeter, Devon, United Kingdom

The Social Intelligence Hypothesis (SIH) posits that the maintenance and management of social bonds generates selection on cognitive ability. While the SIH is a leading theory for cognitive evolution, its fundamental predictions have never been tested within a single study system. Here, we tested four key predictions of the SIH in a wild bird with long-term monogamous pair-bonds, the jackdaw (Corvus monedula). We found support for three predictions: that pair-bond strength is variable between mated pairs, repeatable within mated pairs and related to socio-cognitive performance. However, we did not find strong support for the prediction that pair-bond strength influences fitness. Our results thus support several key predictions of the SIH, including the first direct evidence that bond strength and cognitive performance are related in non-humans. However, further work is needed to understand whether and how pair-bond strength influences fitness. Taken together, this study provides novel insights into the relationship between sociality and cognition, and furthers our understanding of the drivers of cognitive evolution.
Session: Virtual Talks
Teaching Foraging and Vigilance in Animal Behavior Lab through "Zombie Games"
Jeremy Howard, Aimee Dunlap
University of Missouri, St. Louis, Missouri, USA

The field of animal behavior introduces students to numerous ecological and psychological concepts. This material can be abstract, and lab courses have the challenge of providing tangible ways to illustrate these concepts in an engaging way. One such topic is vigilance and selfish herds with foraging animals: which incorporates ideas of foraging trade-offs, reciprocal altruism, social foraging, and social information use. We describe a hands-on lab that we have been leading with students for nine years, entitled the "Zombie Games." This lab incorporates a series of animal behavior concepts through a role-playing game exercise, where students take roles of foragers and predators in fun game-like situations. We build upon classic foraging games labs, within an imaginary zombie apocalypse context, which is very engaging for students. The games are flexible to class size, can be played inside or outside, can accommodate students of different athletic and ability levels, and is low budget. Through this hands-on activity, students can connect theory with application, and better understand the types of decisions and choices animals must make in their respective foraging environments.
Session: Virtual Talks
Allocation of Daily Song Output Reflects Differences in Male Quality along a Montane Gradient
Samantha Y. Huang1,2, Daniella Schaening-Lopez1, Virginia Halterman1, Vladimir V. Pravosudov3, Carrie L. Branch1,4
1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA, 2(current address) University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, Canada, 3University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA, 4(current address) University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada

Temperate passerine birds convey information through vocal communication. Females listen to males sing to assess their quality. Higher-quality males often produce higher song output and start singing earlier in the day compared to lower-quality males. However, the cost of singing varies throughout the day and may be affected by how well a singer can forage. Along an elevation gradient, song output and allocation may reflect local differences in environmental selection. Mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli) are non-migratory food hoarders that experience harsher environmental conditions at higher elevations. High-elevation mountain chickadees cache more food and have superior spatial cognitive abilities relative to those at low elevation and are therefore of higher quality. We compared the daily song output and allocation of males inhabiting high and low elevations. We found no difference in total daily song output between elevations. However, high-elevation males sang significantly more than low-elevation males at dawn, the critical time of day for female extra-pair mating decisions. Allocation of song output may therefore act as an indicator of quality in male mountain chickadees.
Session: Not on the same page: Communication & Sexual conflict
Is Social Information Production and Use Genetically Correlated in D.melanogaster?
Marina Hutchins, Julia Saltz
Rice University, Houston, Texas, USA

Social behaviors often take place in an environment where eavesdroppers can observe interactions between others and extract information from their behavior. Many traits subject to eavesdropping differ among genotypes; thus the genotype of a social demonstrator may influence the social information that is available to an eavesdropper. Further, genetic variation in how an individual uses social information may cause two individuals observing the same event to react differently. However, we know very little about the genetic basis for social information use and production, and in particular, whether these two types of social responses are genetically correlated. To address this gap in knowledge, I am conducting a series of behavioral experiments using Drosophila melanogaster (n = 15 genotypes) to estimate the genetic correlation between social information production and use in an aggressive context. Investigating genotypic correlations between social information use and production are critical to understanding how reliance on social information has evolved and is maintained in a population.
Session: Social Competency: An Integrative Approach to Understanding Connections Between Social Information, Decision-Making, and Cognition
Ecological Drivers of Innovation on Darwin's Finches: Role of Foraging Ecology and Habitat
Paula Ibáñez de Aldecoa, Mario Gallego Abenza, Sabine Tebbich
University of Vienna, Vienna, Vienna, Austria

Darwin's finches, a symbol of adaptive radiation due to the ecological diversity of the Galápagos, have developed food innovations that are uncommon for passerines. However, little is known about the relevance and underlying mechanisms of these behaviors. We examined the ecological drivers of innovation in (1) species with different foraging techniques, and (2) populations of the same species from different habitats. We used a task with four distinct opening mechanisms to retrieve a food reward, to test the trade-off between persistence, flexibility and motivation. In experiment 1 we hypothesized that extractive foragers (woodpecker and cactus finch) would be more persistent (persevere to keep opening a no-longer-available mechanism), while non-extractive foragers (small and medium ground finch) would be more flexible (faster in switching to a new mechanism). For the second experiment, we used the same task to compare the performance of two woodpecker finch populations from two distinct habitats: the lush highlands of Santa Cruz Island, and the arid zone in the lowland. We predicted that the scarcity of food sources in the latter population would result in a better performance.
Session: Flexibility it's in the air: Ecological effects & Behavioral Plasticity
Sexual Conflict and the Emergence of Cognitive-Behavioral Profiles: Comparing Four Poeciliid Species
Callen M. Inman, Alan Vuong, Molly E. Cummings
University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA

Sexual conflict, the divergence in optimal reproductive strategies between the sexes, has a significant role in shaping morphology and mating behavior. Less is known about the consequences of sexual conflict for general cognitive and behavioral traits and the relationships between them (cognitive-behavioral and behavioral syndromes). We compared females of four poeciliid fish species varying in male coercive mating rates across six dimensions of behavior and cognition: sociability, activity, boldness, stress movement, problem solving, and spatial learning. We found interspecific differences in all six dimensions. In addition, we found that females from high sexual coercion mating systems had significant cognitive-behavioral syndromes (positive correlations between spatial learning performance and sociability) than species with less coercive and more courtship mating systems. This suggests that selection pressure from sexually coercive environments might favor certain trait combinations. We discuss how future work comparing syntopic poeciliid species can disentangle the ecological and social factors affecting cognition and behavior.
Session: Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus, or Is It the Opposite? Sexual conflict
The behavioral tendency of aged female Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) in a free-ranging group
Hiroki Ishikawa1,2, Masayuki Nakamichi1, Kazunori Yamada1
1University of Osaka, Suita, Osaka, Japan, 2Japan Society for Promotion of Science , Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan

We aimed to describe the behavioral characteristics of aged monkeys by observing their social interactions while they are in a free-ranging group of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) in Arashiyama (Kyoto, Japan). In this group, more than 30 % are aged females (≧20 years old), and this value is unusually higher than other Japanese monkey groups. It is known that aged females of Japanese monkeys spend more time resting and less time in social interactions. We conducted focal sampling of 38 monkeys between August and November in 2019. We recorded the behavioral activities (movement or rest), social behavior (grooming and proximity within 2m), and social isolation (no individual within 5m). Aged females had a lower frequency of grooming and proximity to other individuals, as compared to young adult females. Moreover, aged females showed more frequent rest. However, there was no significant difference between aged females and young adult females in terms of social isolation. These results indicate that aged females were not isolated. Aged females may maintain social relationships by their behavior without physical contact such as grooming to avoid the risk of attack.
Session: Virtual Posters
Variability in Echolocation Calls of Insect-Eating Bats as an Adaptation to Changes in Ambient Temperature
Paula M. Iturralde-Polit1, Holger R. Goerlitz2, Gloriana Chaverri1,3
1Universidad de Costa Rica, Golfito, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, 2Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Seewiesen, Bavaria, Germany, 3Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Panama, Panama

Climate change is threatening biodiversity and species' ecological interactions. Still, there is a lack of information on how it will affect behavioral decisions based on information gathered through animals' sensory systems. Insectivorous bats rely on echolocation to find and capture prey, making it a fundamental sensory mechanism for survival. However, the range over which these calls operate is a direct function of temperature and relative humidity. We recorded vespertilionid bats in a pre-montane forest of Costa Rica under controlled conditions of ambient temperature. Bats could decrease call frequency, increase call level, or increase call duration to keep constant prey detection ranges when the ambient temperature rises. Although we did not get significant differences in emitted call level and peak frequency, we found that all species increased call duration when temperature increased. This is the first assessment that considers temperature effects in call production of Neotropical bats under controlled conditions. We expect to share insights into how prone they are to stay resilient despite changes in environmental conditions and broaden the knowledge of bats sensory ecology
Session: Flexibility it's in the air: Ecological effects & Behavioral Plasticity
Variation in maternal style does not predict post-weaning calf survival in bottlenose dolphins
Ellen Jacobs1, Taylor Evans1, Vivienne Foroughirad1, Quincy Gibson2, Caitlin Karniski1, Ewa Krzyszczyk3, Janet Mann1
1Georgetown, Washington, DC, USA, 2University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL, USA, 3Bangor University, Bangor, Wales

Maternal style, the repeatable individual variation in traits related to maternal care, is an important influence on the early life experiences of dependent young, especially in social species like dolphins with an average dependency period of 4 years. Based on 30+ years of research on Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Shark Bay, Australia we investigate the impact of maternal style on post-weaning survival. Using focal follow data (n=352 follows) to extract behavioral information about maternal characteristics, we examine 17 mothers of 49 calves < 2 years old. Building on previous work showing that maternal identity has a significant impact on maternal characteristics consistent across multiple calves, we use PCA and k-means clustering to divide mothers into styles based on activity budget, proximity maintenance, and direct care (nursing access). We use a Cox mixed effects model to look at survival from ages 2-10 to evaluate whether calves raised by mothers with specific styles had higher post-weaning survival. We find no significant differences in survival between styles, suggesting that divergent maternal styles achieve similar fitness outcomes.
Session: Bringing Up Baby: Parental Behavior
Cross-modal facilitation of auditory discrimination in a frog
Logan S James1,2, A Leonie Baier1,2, Rachel A Page2, Kimberly L Hunter3, Ryan C Taylor2,3, Michael J Ryan1,2
1Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas, Austin, Austin, Texas, USA, 22 Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Panama, Panama, 3Department of Biological Sciences, Salisbury University, Salisbury, Maryland, USA

Stimulation in one sensory modality can affect perception in a separate modality which can even result in cross-modal facilitation, a process where sensory performance in one modality is improved by stimulation in another modality. For instance, a simple sound can improve performance on a visual task in humans and cats. However, the range of contexts and mechanisms that evoke such facilitation effects remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrated cross-modal stimulation in wild-caught túngara frogs, a species with well-studied acoustic preferences in females. We first identified that a combined visual and seismic cue (vocal sac movement & water ripple) was behaviorally relevant for females choosing between two courtship calls in a phonotaxis assay. We then found that this combined cross-modal stimulus rescued a species-typical acoustic preference in the presence of background noise that otherwise abolished the preference. These results highlight how cross-modal stimulation can prime attention in receivers to improve performance during decision-making and provide the foundation for future work uncovering the processes and conditions that promote cross-modal facilitation effects.
Session: Chirps, Croaks and more! Acoustic Communication
Flower constancy and colour preference affect crop visitation in commercially-reared bumble bees.
Jennifer M Jandt1, Jake Tully1, Georgia McCombe1, Janice Lord1, Kath Dickinson1, Barbara Barratt1,2
1University of Otago, Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand, 2AgResearch, Mosgiel, Otago, New Zealand

Pollinators are expected to exhibit higher levels of floral constancy as complexity of foraging task or environment increases. However, most tests of flower constancy in bees have been conducted under laboratory settings using nectar as a reward. We designed a semi-natural floral environment inside a glasshouse, and followed foraging bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) as they visited potted flowers (snapdragon and/or cornflower) and/or flowering tomatoes. Collecting pollen at these different flower species requires a unique set of handling behaviors, yet pollen foragers exhibited high levels of switching among flower species within foraging bouts. We also compared flower color preference and variation in switching behavior during foraging bouts with tomato crop visitation rates, and discuss the benefits and constraints to using semi-natural floral landscapes to quantify bumble bee foraging behavior
Session: Virtual Talks
Behavioral analysis of the brightness discrimination threshold in Phidippus audax jumping spiders. 
Nuthara N. Jayasinghe 1, Olivia K. Harris1,2, Nathan Morehouse3
1University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA, 2University of Cincinnati , Cincinnati, OH, USA, 3University of Cincinnati , Cincinnati, OH, USA

Jumping spiders, or Salticidae, are known for their phenomenal vision and have been subject to many behavioral experiments based on tracking behavior which typically utilize high contrast stimuli to investigate jumping spider visual behavior. However there has been no behavioral evidence identifying the minimum contrast level that is sufficient for a spider to discriminate between two lights. This information would help us to understand how these spiders behave in realistic low light situations. Therefore, we are analyzing behavior to investigate the achromatic contrast threshold in Phidippus audax jumping spiders using a video playback paradigm paired with a trackball to measure behavioral responses. Our first objective was to optimize stimulus properties to maximize the reliability of response from the animal, by altering size, speed, and predictability of the stimulus path. This design was then used to test the achromatic contrast thresholds by varying the degree of achromatic contrast between the stimulus and the background. We investigated 15 different contrast levels between 24% and 0.026%.  If the jumping spider can resolve the difference between the object and the background, it is expected to turn towards the object. We then use this rotational response to determine the contrast threshold at which a spider can no longer reliably discriminate between the two brightnesses. We expect that contrast levels lower than 5% will be difficult for the animal to resolve. Identifying the exact value of the threshold will then allow us to further investigate their visual capabilities with chromatic contrast experiments.  
Session: Poster Session 1
M. vaccae Ingestion Influences Anxiety-related and Repetitive Behavior in Autism Model Mice
Susan M. Jenks, Dorothy Matthews, Jennifer Keane, Stacy Efstathiadis, LaShonda Brown
Russell Sage College, Troy, NY, USA

Previous research indicates that ingestion of nonpathogenic Mycobacterium vaccae reduces anxiety behavior and facilitates maze learning in mice; likely via neuroimmune serotonergic pathways. Autism-typical behaviors may be rooted in serotonergic systems leading to the question: Can M. vaccae influence diagnostic behaviors in the autism model mouse strain BTBR? Such behaviors include repetitive grooming and burying, reduced social approach and social reciprocity. Following M. vaccae administration, we investigated anxiety and autism-like behavior in male BTBR mice in two mazes, a burying test, and a social interaction test, and analyzed fear vocalizations. No significant treatment differences were found in anxiety-like behaviors and run time in the complex maze tests. Significant treatment differences were found in the burying test behaviors and ultrasonic vocalizations. We predict that there will be no significant treatment effects in the zero maze, and that treatment effects will occur in autism-like behaviors exhibited in social interaction tests. Preliminarily, M. vaccae treatment differentially effects diagnostic behavior in BTBR mice depending on test context.
Session: Poster Session 2
Parsing vocal interactions of free-ranging spotted hyenas using sound, movement and position-logging collars
Frants H. Jensen1,2, Ariana Strandburg-Peshkin3,4, Andrew S. Gersick5, Kay E. Holekamp6, Kenna D. S. Lehmann7, Mark P. Johnson8
1Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA, 2Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, USA, 3Max Planck Institute for Animal Behavior, Konstanz, Germany, 4University of Konstan, Konstanz, Germany, 5Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA, 6Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA, 7University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA, 8Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark

Sound recording tags placed directly on animals are increasingly used to record vocalizations, yet it remains challenging to differentiate vocalizations from tagged animals from those of nearby conspecifics. Here we present novel sound, movement and position-logging collars for tracking communication and information flow between freely moving animals. The tags integrate a sound recorder with a high-resolution GPS and a 1000-Hz 3-D accelerometer. To test tags and investigate how high sample rate accelerometers can aid call identification, we simultaneously tagged 5 adult female spotted hyenas in the Maasai Mara, Kenya, for 22-45 days per collar. We found that accelerometers can detect throat vibrations from focal calls and be used to identify focal calls with an accuracy of ~97%. In contrast, auditors labelling sound data without associated accelerometry mislabelled ~20% of non-focal sounds as focal. Combined audio and accelerometry data also allowed for separating overlapping focal and non-focal vocalizations in complex vocal exchanges. We discuss how these methods can help test hypotheses for the role of vocal communication in decision-making of distributed animal societies.
Session: Message in a bottle: Communication
Social context and individual variation in dispersal behaviour
Aaron Jessop1, Michael Morrissey1, Miguel Barbosa1,2
1University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, Scotland, 2University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal

Within a population only a subset of individuals will disperse. It is debatable if dispersal is driven primarily by innate characteristics or environment and social context. Recent research has linked dispersal to a suite of individual characteristics such as boldness, suggesting that dispersers represent a non-random subset of a population. Here we test the hypothesis that dispersal varies across individuals of the invasive Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticula. We frame our hypothesis in the context of social environment and explore the effect of sex ratio on the tendency for individuals to disperse via jumping behaviour. We found no significant difference in male and female jumping behaviour and no effect of sex ratio. However, we found consistent individual variation in jumping probability. Our results suggest that the propensity for individuals to disperse is independent of social context and has played a key role in the invasive success of guppies. Further, our results indicate that species invasions are mediated by a non-random subset of individuals. The results of this study stress the need to incorporate individual variation in behaviour in future invasion biology research.
Session: Every cloud has a silver lining: Applied Behavior and Conservation
Worker polymorphism in aggregation behavior of Camponotus japonicus
Hyein Jo1, Woncheol Song1, Sang-im Lee2, Piotr G. Jablonski1,3
1Laboratory of Behavioral Ecology and Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea, 2Laboratory of Integrative Animal Ecology, Department of New Biology, DGIST, Daegu, South Korea, 3Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland

Worker polymorphism in carpenter ants (Camponotus spp.) leads to caste-specific behaviors. Here, unlike past studies in this genus, we focused only on aggregation behavior of Camponotus japonicus outdoor workers to minimize the effect of age polyethism. In previous studies, workers of this species were often divided into major and minor castes. In our experiment, we reclassified very small individuals as sub-minors due to great variation in size and behavior among the minors. Body size and aggregation showed positive relationship, and the minor workers were significantly different from the sub-minors. Additionally, there was a significant association between the individuals in sleeping-like postures and the clusters that lasted until the end of observation period. Majors tended to assume this posture relatively earlier and for longer. We believe that this posture triggers clustering, but its working mechanism remains uncertain. In conclusion, we found polymorphism in aggregation behavior and some of its principles. We will utilize individual video tracking in the future that would help us study detailed mechanism and ecological significance of this phenomenon.
Session: Poster Session 2
Putting Smooth-Coated Otter Vocalizations into Context 
Philip Johns1, Sarah Lim1, Yugal Nathoo1, Zhi Yi Yeo1, Raunak Vijayakar1, Niki Lee2
1Yale-NUS College, Singapore, Singapore, 2National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

Smooth-coated otters (Lutrogale perspicillata) returned to Singapore in recent years, and their growing urban population allows for some of the best conditions to observe otter behavior anywhere. Smooth-coated otter romps consist of a dominant pair and one or more successive broods. These otters are gregarious and vocal. Here we observed and video recorded urban otters in situ. We used a supervised machine learning algorithm to isolate over 12000 otter vocalizations from other noises recorded in over 3300 videos, then clustered the vocalizations into more than 20 call types. We subsampled videos to find associations between call types and otter behaviors. We then analyzed sequences of vocalizations and otter behaviors to put otter calls into contexts. We found evidence that otters use vocal communication to coordinate some behaviors, including group foraging. We discuss these results in the context of otter social behavior, urban wildlife, and citizen science.
Session: Virtual Talks
Investigation what training methods dog owners use and why
Anamarie C Johnson, Clive D.L. Wynne
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

While there has been recent attention in the scientific community on the ethical and welfare implications of different dog training methods, less research has investigated what methods and training tools United States dog owners are using and why.  We conducted two surveys with nearly 800 Arizona State University undergraduate students to gain a more realistic look into how dog owners in the United States train their dogs and where they are receiving their training information. The implementation of two surveys allowed validation of the first study in seeing similar trends across two populations.  Only 5% of respondents reported utilizing a trainer when they had concerns regarding their dog's behavior; 50% would ask a friend or family member or seek advice online. Few reported taking their dog to any training classes; 70% reported either training the dog themselves or not implementing any formal training with their dog. For problem behaviors, 57% of respondents noted that they would use auditory or physical corrections. Overall, 54% of respondents felt that rewards-based training was most effective. 
Session: Keep me happy: Animal behavior and welfare in captivity
Convergent evolution in behavior and physiology in Anolis lizards
Michele A. Johnson
Trinity University, San Antonio, Texas, USA

Most animal behaviors require movement, and movements occur when signals from the brain reach the muscles that facilitate the movement. While motivation to perform a behavior is necessary, motivation and its underlying neural mechanisms are generally not sufficient to produce a behavior; the physiological ability to produce a movement is also required. Variation in behaviors may thus be due to differences in the brain, in physiological traits of peripheral tissues, or (likely) both. I will describe a series of studies exploring how variation in muscular morphology and neuroendocrine traits are associated with variation in social behavior, using lizards in the diverse and speciose genus Anolis. We find that muscle fiber size, number, and type; androgen receptor expression in muscle fibers; and morphology of the neuromuscular junction are associated with the evolution of different behavioral traits in anole lizards. Combined with previous studies of brain and hormonal traits in anoles, these results suggest that the production and evolution of social behavior requires a complex interplay of mechanisms, resulting in a variety of potential targets for selection on behavior.
Session: Bridging Brain and Behavior in the Americas
Natural conditions and adaptive functions of problem-solving in the Carnivora
Zoe Johnson-Ulrich1, Lily Johnson-Ulrich2, Kay Holekamp3
1Eastern Oregon University, La Grande, OR, USA, 2University of Zurich, Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 3Michigan State University, Lansing, MI, USA

Physical problem-solving paradigms are popular for testing a variety of cognitive abilities linked with intelligence including behavioral flexibility, innovation, and learning. Members of the mammalian order Carnivora are excellent candidates for studying problem-solving because they occupy a diverse array of socio-ecological niches, allowing researchers to test competing hypotheses on the evolution of intelligence. Recent developments in the design of problem-solving apparatuses have enhanced our ability to detect inter-specific and intra- specific variation in problem-solving success in captive and wild carnivores. These studies suggest there may be some links between variation in problem-solving success and variation in urbanization, diet, and sociality.
Session: Puzzling Animals: Learning and Cognition
Which Visual and Auditory Stimuli are A-lure-ing to Red-Bellied Piranha
Amity Jordan, Jared Edge, Jennifer Vonk
Oakland University, Rochester, MI, USA

Although fish are increasingly represented in comparative cognition research, piranhas have yet to be featured. Understanding piranha's response to cues from different modalities may inform our understanding of their response to increased environmental stress caused by sound and light pollution, which might impact foraging. We examined whether carnivorous piranhas prioritize auditory cues over visual cues. First, we determined whether piranha exhibited differential responding to different colored lights and sounds (e.g., stones dropping in water, splashing). Results suggested that they discriminated both visual and auditory stimuli. These results will inform a subsequent phase of testing in which auditory and visual cues will be paired to predict the location for food delivery. Cues will then be repaired to determine which cue piranhas attended to in the learning phase. This study will be among the first to determine the discrimination learning abilities of red-bellied piranha and may impact husbandry decisions and inform understanding of their response to anthropogenic changes in their environment.
Session: Poster Session 2
Social interactions of howler monkeys related to population changes in Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil.
Rílary da Silva José, Eleonore Zulnara Freire Setz
Instituto de Biologia, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ecologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Outside US/Canada, Brazil

Social interactions can be affiliative (play, groom) or agonistic or preventive (vocalizations, scent markings). The temporal budget in social activities of a group of 10 howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba) (1 Adult Male, 4 to 5 Adult Females and offspring) was evaluated by scan sampling in addition to all occurrences of vocalizations, over 19 months in the Mata de Santa Genebra Reserve (2.5km2), Campinas - SP, Brazil. Social activity comprised 9% (n=791). Vocalizations had 98 records (in 24 events), play 55, grooming 16, and scent marking 10. The large value for play is explained by the number of young, four births (two in Oct-Dec/20 and two in Dec/20 21-Jan/22), although one disappeared in Nov/21 and another one was preyed on by a raptor in Jan/22. Including another 10 vocalization events (79 records) in the forest, there were only 0.35 vocalizations/day. This decrease in vocal interactions between groups denotes a reduction in population density. Predation seems to be a strong selective pressure, it would be important to check the diet of the pumas in the Reserve, although the reproduction of howler monkeys offers the expectation of population increase.
Session: Virtual Posters
Rescue cat (Felis catus) behavior repertoire size: do aggressive cats signal more than shy and friendly cats
Ingrid M Kaatz1, Carrie Etzen2, Janine Paton2
140 Apple Valley road, Stamford, CT, USA, 2Friends of Felines, Inc, Stamford, CT, USA, 3Friends of Felines, Inc, Stamford, CT, USA

Rescued domestic cats are kept in much smaller spaces than cats that live in most adopted homes. In order to better understand the care, temperament and personality assessment of these cats which are essential for a successful adoption we looked at how many different types of behaviors cats expressed in a shelter environment. An evaluation of cats visited at a rescue facility included direct observation of cat behaviors during socialization visits from 2017 - 2022. Visit time estimate per cat was < 15+6SD min (4-60, n=340). We asked if behavioral repertoire size correlated with temperament. Number of days visited per cats for analysis of individuals was 18+12SD (3-47, n=51). There were 187 behavior traits scored in this analysis. Traits/cat perceived as negative towards humans numbered 26+12SD, 0-45%, n=51. Repertoire size for common behaviors from preliminary email reports was 33+12SD (7-58, n=51). The repertoire size was: people shy 33+10SD (16-46, n=17); people aggressive 43+9SD (25-58, n=17); and people friendly 25+10SD (7-45, n=17). Cat behaviors in rescue habitats were numerous and diverse. Individual repertoire size was significantly greater for aggressive cats.  
Session: Virtual Posters
Something in the wind: aerial dispersal in the South American web wolf spider Aglaoctenus lagotis
Nadia Kacevas1,2,3,4, Leticia Bidegaray-Batista2, Noelia Gobel3,4,5, Macarena González1
1Departamento de Ecología y Biología Evolutiva, Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable (IIBCE), Ministerio de Educación y Cultura (MEC), Montevideo, Montevideo, Uruguay, 2Departamento de Biodiversidad y Genética, IIBCE, MEC, Montevideo, Montevideo, Uruguay, 3Área de Biodiversidad y Conservación, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Montevideo, Montevideo, Uruguay, 4Vida Silvestre Uruguay, Montevideo, Montevideo, Uruguay, 5Polo de Ecología Fluvial, CENUR Litoral Norte, Universidad de la República, Paysandú, Paysandú, Uruguay

Ballooning is a particular way of aerial dispersal in some groups of spiders. By releasing silk threads that are blown by the wind, small spiders can travel long distances. Aglaoctenus lagotis is a wolf spider that lives on funnel-webs, despite the most common wandering habit of this family. Two forms of this species are present in Uruguay, one of them strictly inhabits grasslands. Its habitat specialization and the high proportion of offspring observed remaining around the maternal web suggest a scarce dispersal capacity in this species. To test if A. lagotis spiderlings are capable to disperse by the air, we performed lab and field experiments, during day and night, and we also placed sticky traps around maternal webs in the field. We registered the occurrence of pre-ballooning and ballooning behaviors in the experiments and the number of spiders stuck on the sticky traps. Ballooning was recorded both in the lab and in the field, with a higher frequency during the day, and only two spiders were registered in the traps. The typical pre-ballooning behavior Tip-toe was absent. We discuss the features of the aerial dispersion registered considering that it is a web wolf spider.
Session: Their Best Interests in Mind: Conservation and Behavior
Temporal coherence overrides spectral similarity during stream segregation in Cope's gray treefrogs  
Lata Kalra, Mark Bee
University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA

Acoustic communication requires receivers to hear sequences of sounds (e.g. repeated signals or signal elements) produced by a signaler as a distinct "auditory stream" that is perceptually segregated from background noise and other signals. Auditory stream segregation is challenging because sounds from multiple sources sum to form a composite sound wave impinging on a receiver's ears. The cues that enable auditory stream segregation remain poorly known in the context of nonhuman acoustic communication. Using Cope's gray treefrog, we investigated stream segregation when two well-established cues, temporal coherence (sounds sharing onset and offsets) and spectral similarity (sounds similar in frequency), are in conflict, creating competing auditory streams. We designed tasks in which stream segregation specifically impacted the recognition of mating signals and then measured signal recognition using phonotaxis assays. Our results reveal that temporal coherence overrides spectral similarity during stream segregation. These findings add evidence to the ecological validity of temporal coherence as a robust stream segregation cue.   
Session: Chirps, Croaks and more! Acoustic Communication
Generalization to Spotted Lanternfly training aids and detection in a mock deployment assessment
Sarah A. Kane, Edgar Aviles-Rosa, Nathaniel J. Hall
Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA

The Spotted Lanternfly (SLF; Lycorma delicatula) is an invasive agricultural pest in the Northeastern U.S. (Urban, 2020). SLF-egg detection dogs may be one method to slow the spread of SLF and mitigate losses. The aim of this study was to develop an egg-impermeable and odor-permeable training aid that allowed dogs previously trained to detect killed SLF eggs, to spontaneously generalize in a lab setting (Experiment 1) and successfully detect it in a mock deployment scenario (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, dogs (n=7) were presented with six training aids in unrewarded "probe" trials to determine canine generalization from their known target odorant (SLF egg masses). In Experiment 2, dogs (n=2) were tested on their ability to search pallets to find an SLF training aid created in Experiment 1. Of the six training aids presented in the olfactometer, a mesh pouch was selected as the best training aid. In Experiment 2, the two dogs achieved greater than 90% sensitivity and less than 5% false alarm rate across three mock deployment tests. Dogs can generalize to an egg-impermeable, odor-permeable training aid in an olfactometer, and detect it in a simulated deployment scenario.
Session: Virtual Talks
How may social interaction and task swithcing generate spatial heterogeneity in social insect colonies?
Yun Kang1, Jun Chen1, Xiaohui Guo2, Jennifer Fewell1
1Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA, 2University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA

 We used Agent-Based Models  to explore mechanisms of generating spatial heterogeneity. Specifically, we aim to study  the impacts of  multiple task groups and task swithcing on spatial heterogeneity degree, contact dynamics and information spreading. Our models show a strong linear relationship between dynamics of spatial heterogeneity degree and contact dynamics. The multiple-task-group model inhibiting workers from switching among tasks reveals impacts of the number and spatial arrangements of task locations on the information transmission. The task-switching model, which allows task-switching with a certain probability through contact, suggests that the task-switching mechanism enables a dynamical task spatial fidelity at individual level, and this spatial fidelity can assist the colony to re-distribute their workforce, and consequently affect the dynamics of spatial heterogeneity degree. Our results not only provide important insights into the mechanisms that generate spatial heterogeneity, but also deepen our understanding of how spatial heterogeneity impacts task allocation, social interaction and information spread
Session: Long Live the Queen?: Insect Social Behavior
Testing the Parental Brain Hypothesis in Three-Spined Stickleback Fish
Jason Keagy1, Tiffany Hatfield1, Eric Arredondo2, Katie Julkowski2, Colby Behrens2, Alison M. Bell2
1Penn State University, University Park, PA, USA, 2University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA

Research on brain evolution has focused on selection pressures such as diet, sensory ecology, and social behavior. However, parental care can also create unique cognitive demands that likely affect brain evolution. We take advantage of recently evolved differences in parental care in three-spined stickleback fish, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Wild stickleback offspring typically require care from their fathers. A unique ecotype in Nova Scotia, referred to here as "non-caring", no longer exhibits paternal care. In this study, we build on prior work demonstrating an association between whole brain size and parental care in sticklebacks. We focus on determining which specific brain regions differ between the caring and non-caring ecotypes. We also utilize a lab-generated F2 population to ask questions about how variation in brain region size is related to variation in parental care behaviors. We found that the caring ecotype had larger diencephala, cerebella, and optic tecta than the non-caring ecotype. F2 males with larger cerebella and optic tecta but smaller telencephala tended their nests more. These fish provide a rich natural system to study parental care and cognitive evolution.
Session: Virtual Talks
Behavioral parasitology: Studying tick host-seeking behavior from individuals to populations
Carl N Keiser1, Elise A Richardson1,2
1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA, 2North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA

Ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogens than any other arthropod group, and their ability to find hosts is based on a behavior called "questing". Tick questing behavior may vary depend on a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors like infection status and habitat type. We studied questing behavior in the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, across multiple scales: (1) measuring individuals repeatedly to quantify individual variation in questing behavior, (2) across different habitat types, and (3) between populations. At the individual level, we found significant variation among individuals in questing behavior, which was influenced by Rickettsia amblyommatis infection, a member of the Rickettsia spotted fever group. At the habitat level, we found that ticks collected in xeric hammock habitats spent over twice as long questing compared to ticks from successional hardwood forests. At the population level, we found that ticks from rural sites quested higher on average compared to ticks from city parks. These data highlight the need for a multiscale approach to studying tick behavior to better understand vector-borne disease dynamics.
Session: Feeling under the weather: Parasites and Disease
Introgression of a sexually selected trait via female preference: genomic and endocrine mechanisms
Sarah Khalil1,2, Jennifer Walsh2, Erik D Enbody3, Daniel T Baldassarre4, Hubert Schwabl5, Michael S Webster1,2, Jordan Karubian6
1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA, 2Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA, 3UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, USA, 4SUNY Oswego, Oswego, NY, USA, 5Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA, 6Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA

Showy male traits have long fascinated naturalists and behavioral ecologists. Yet the genomic, endocrine, and physiological factors that determine these phenotypes are often studied independently, leading to an incomplete understanding of how underlying forces interact to produce and maintain these traits. Malurus melanocephalus provides an opportunity to study the evolution of a sexually selected trait using integrative approaches. Males exhibit variation in flexible reproductive phenotypes, where some breed in ornamented red/black plumage and others breed in female-like brown plumage. Previous work supports female preference for red/black males over brown males and that red/black males have higher circulating levels of testosterone. To assess how the endocrine system impacts gene regulation and red plumage production, we experimentally manipulated testosterone levels in males, sequenced the transcriptome of both the liver and feather, and found that testosterone regulates the expression of key red pigment genes. In addition, we leverage the hybridization of two subspecies to characterize the genetic underpinnings of plumage variation using whole-genome sequencing.
Session: Sexy Time: Mating Behavior and Sexual Selection
Drivers of welfare behaviours and physiology in zoo-housed red pandas in India  
Aamer Sohel Khan1,3, Stephen EG Lea2, Vinod Kumar3, Janine Brown4, Govindswamy Umapathy3, Nagarajan Baskaran1
1Dept. of Zoology and Wildlife Biology, A.V.C College (Autonomous), Mayiladuthurai, Tamil Nadu, India, 2Dept. of Psychology, Washington Singer Laboratories University of Exeter, Exeter, UK, United Kingdom, 3Laboratory for the Conservation of Endangered Species (LaCONES) CSIR-CCMB, Hyderaad, Telangana, India, 4Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute Center for Species Survival , MRC 5533 1500 Remount Road, Front Royal, VA 22630, USA

The red panda, an endangered species, is struggling in the wild; a global captive breeding programme is the only hope. To assess the welfare of pandas, we investigated stereotypy, behavioural diversity and physiological (faecal hormone) response of pandas to several biological and environmental variables in Indian zoos. Results showed that stereotypy increased with wooden logs, age and higher among pandas in zoo3 compared to zoo2, but decreased with the number of nests, sociality, tree density and mean tree height. Behavioural diversity increased with wooden logs, but decreased among pandas in zoo2 compared to zoo1, during summer compared to winter, and also with ambient temperature, stereotypy, tree density and mean tree height. Meanwhile, cortisol was higher in males than females and positively correlated with the visitors, while negatively related to the frequency of feedings and enclosure area. Progestagen was positively associated with tree density whereas androgen was positively associated with frequency of feed but negatively with age and visitors. These findings have global relevance, as the captive pandas experience similar welfare issues worldwide.
Session: Virtual Talks
Tend and Befriend in Horses:  Contextualization and Partner Preferences of Allogrooming in Domestic Horses  
Emily Kieson1, Amira A Goma2, Medhat Radi3
1MiMer Centre, Saxtorp, Sweden, 2Faculty of veterinary medicine, Alexandria University, Bab Sharqi, Egypt, 3Plant Protection Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt

Studies show that horses show favoritism through shared proximity and time and demonstrate unique affiliative behaviors such as allogrooming (mutual scratching) with favorite conspecifics. Allogrooming also occurs more frequently during stress. This study looked at two socially-stable herds of mares (n=85, n=115) to look at frequency, duration, context, and partner preference during allogrooming in both pasture settings (low stress) and confined settings (higher stress). A total of 153 videos were coded for allogrooming behaviors with 6.86 hours recorded in confined conditions and 31.9 hours in pasture settings. A total of 6 allogrooming sessions were observed in the pasture setting with an average duration of 163.11s. A total of 118 allogrooming sessions were observed in confined settings with an average duration of 40.98s. All observed allogroomign sessions involved pairs of favored conspecifics (one partner per horse). The study suggests that horses may have friendships that can be observed through the demonstration of specific affiliative behaviors during times of stress. This context suggests that horses adhere to the "tend and befriend" principles of friendship in animals.  
Session: Virtual Talks
Effects of Artificial Light at Night (ALAN) on Honey bee Sleep Behavior
Ashley Kim, James Nieh
University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA

Light pollution, including artificial light at night (ALAN), covers roughly about a quarter of the Earth's surface and disturbs biological rhythms, orientation, and the mating behavior and reproductive success of animals. The underlying effects of ALAN on insect behavior such as sleep are relatively unknown, particularly for honey bees who rely on light-regulated circadian rhythms. We investigated the effects of ALAN on honey bee sleep to see if they maintain a regular sleep pattern due to an internal 24-hour circadian clock. Microcolonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) were placed under two treatments: constant darkness or light (mimicking the situation of a swarm near artificial light). During a five-day trial, honey bees under a constant light treatment maintained a regular sleep cycle until days 4 and 5, when they were sleeping significantly more. To our knowledge, this is the first study exploring how ALAN affects honey bee behavior and is critical information for application in different species.
Session: Poster Session 2
Estradiol and predator cues affect behavior and brain responses of captive female house sparrows
Melanie G. Kimball, Courtney T. Harding, Keegan R. Stansberry, Tosha R. Kelly, Christine R. Lattin
Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA

The presence of predators can cause major changes in animal behavior, but how this interacts with hormonal state and underlying brain activity is understudied. We gave female house sparrows (Passer domesticus) an estradiol (n=16) or empty implant (n=16) for one week. Four weeks after implant removal, we exposed birds to either 30 min of conspecific song or predator calls, and recorded behavior. Brains were then examined for neuronal activity using the expression of immediate early gene (IEG) ZENK. We predicted if female birds with estradiol implants "tune out" predator calls, they would show less fear behavior and decreased ZENK expression in brain regions involved in auditory (e.g., NCM) and threat perception (eg., AMV) compared to controls. Female sparrows were less active during predator playback independent of hormone treatment and spent more time feeding during conspecific playback when previously exposed to estradiol. We observed an effect of hormone treatment, but no effect of sound treatment on ZENK expression. Our results suggest that songbirds maintain vigilance towards predators even during breeding condition and change their behavior accordingly.
Session: You Got A Lot of Nerve: Neuroethology
Three Instances of Davian Behavior in Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in West-Central Florida
Amber Lea D. Kincaid1, Gretchen N. Lovewell1, Jason B. Allen2, Kim Bassos-Hull2, Jessica L. Blackburn1, Rebeccah A. Hazelkorn3, Randall S. Wells2
1Mote Marine Laboratory's Stranding Investigations Program, Sarasota, FL, USA, 2Chicago Zoological Society's Sarasota Dolphin Research Program, c/o Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota, FL, USA, 3NOAA, National Marine Fisheries Service, St. Petersburg, FL, USA

Davian behavior (necrophilia) has been observed in a variety of species but is rarely reported in cetaceans. Along the west-central Florida coast, three instances of pair-bonded adult, male, common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) interacting with a dead female conspecific occurred during 2016-2020. None of the dolphins were involved in more than one event, and the males were not observed with the females while they were alive. Mote Marine Laboratory's Stranding Investigations Program completed necropsies on the females, all of whom had marked distension and discoloration of the urogenital slit, likely indicating post-mortem intromission.  Post-mortem intromission was confirmed in the most recent event by photo documentation. Hormonal cues, grief, territoriality, and earnest mating attempts are all unlikely factors in the cases presented here. Stress, dominance, and sexual pleasure are possible explanations for this rarely reported behavior.
Session: Virtual Talks
Oxytocin and affiliative behavior in male P. verreauxi at Kirindy Mitea National Park, Madagascar
Katherine King1, Allison Hays1, Arielle X. Liu1, Gitanjali Gnanadesikan1, Rebecca J. Lewis2, Stacey Tecot1
1University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA, 2University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA

Social behaviors and relationships are diverse across primates, and while mechanisms vary, many prosocial behaviors are mediated by oxytocin (OT). Here, we focused on an understudied group, male strepsirrhines, to investigate the potential role of OT in affiliative behavior. Via continuous-sampling, we observed the behavior of individually marked Verreaux's sifaka (P. verreauxi) in Kirindy Mitea National Park and conducted urinary OT analysis on 127 samples. We expected OT and affiliation to be correlated and anticipated differences in affiliation across seasons. Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationships between season, OT, and affiliative behaviors (groom, mutual groom, huddle, and play) in 8 individuals. OT concentrations were higher in the non-mating season, while percent of time spent engaging in affiliative behaviors was higher in the mating season; percent time observed in affiliation was not a strong predictor of OT. Our results suggest that OT may not be the primary mechanism for male affiliation in Verreaux sifaka, however, further investigation into the role of OT in male behavior is necessary to understand its function.
Session: Poster Session 2
When and how to escape: Intraspecific variation in antipredator behavior in the strawberry poison frog
Jeremy Klank1, Francesca Protti-Sánchez2, Paula Mora3, Hannah Rowland2, Jennifer Stynoski4
1Sistema de Estudios de Posgrado, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, San José, Costa Rica, 2Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Jena, Thuringia, Germany, 3New York University, Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 4Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, San José,

In the aposematic Strawberry Poison Frog (Oophaga pumilio), it has been shown that escape behavior varies intraspecifically, with calling males presenting a shorter flight initiation distance (FID) than females and non-calling males in response to a human predator. Following optimal escape theory, a trade-off between the costs and benefits of risky behavior should exist. Thus, vocalizing males are likely benefiting from increased reproductive success while engaging in risky behavior. Previous studies have only considered intraspecific variations using a non-natural predator and only measuring the FID. In this study, we evaluate the same population of this poison frog and assess its escape-related behavior by measuring: 1) boldness 2) movement pattern in an open field and 3) FID with an avian model. With this framework, we expect to find that measures of boldness, movement, and FID will reinforce the differences between females, non-calling males, and calling males during an escape from a human. Our results will also provide evidence as to whether differences in movement patterns reflect behavioral interactions that modulate trade-offs between risky behavior and reproductive success
Session: Poster Session 1
Social foraging behavior and information use linked to prey distribution in an insectivorous bat
Jenna E Kohles1,2,3,4, Dina KN Dechmann1,2,3,4
1Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior, Radolfzell, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, 2Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, 3Centre for the Advanced Study of Collective Behaviour, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, 4Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Ancón, Panama

In highly variable environments, where food patches are unpredictable yet shareable, animals can use social information to locate patches more efficiently or reliably. However, how resource availability fluctuates in space and time can vary in complex ways, and the behavioral strategies animals employ to exploit such resources can also vary, particularly if, when, and where they use available social information. We developed a framework for predicting and characterizing strategies of social information use, and used it to investigate the foraging behavior of the lesser bulldog bat. We integrated GPS tracks of simultaneously foraging individuals with the distribution of their ephemeral insect prey in two climatic seasons to determine: 1) food availability relative to foraging bout duration, 2) location of information use, and 3) whether social information use is opportunistic or coordinated. Preliminary results suggest that these bats are flexible in their use of social information, switching between strategies even within a single foraging bout. Linking foraging behavior, food distribution, and social information is important to understand how ecology shapes social behavior.
Session: Influencing each other: Social Behavior
Is early life adversity associated with adult stress?
Alyssa Y. Kong1, 2, Xochitl Ortiz-Ross1, 2, Daniel T. Blumstein1, 2
1University of California, Los Angeles Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, Gothic, CO, USA

Early life is an important stage of life when most development occurs. Studies in both humans and other animals show that adverse experiences in early life contribute to poorer health, fitness, and survival later in life. While the mechanisms are still unclear, some studies have found that early life adversity (ELA) can dysregulate the stress response. In natural populations, many ELA studies focus on a single stressor. However, we know much less about the cumulative impacts of multiple early life stressors. We used a novel cumulative adversity index for female yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventer) and asked whether it was associated with adult glucocorticoid levels. After accounting for current stressors in the environment, we found no significant effect of ELA on adult glucocorticoid levels in female marmots that survived to adulthood. Rather, current stressors explained more variation in glucocorticoid levels than early-life stressors. Marmot stress regulation appears resilient to some early-life stressors. Importantly, our results suggest there is value in studying the relative importance of early life and later stressors on stress physiology in wild populations.
Session: Virtual Posters
Predation intensity drives evolution of cognition independently of brain size in a Trinidad killifish
Meghan N. Korte, Matthew R. Walsh
University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA

Vertebrates exhibit extensive variation in brain size in which larger brains are linked with enhanced cognition and survival. Therefore, natural selection may favor a connection between brain size and shifts in cognition and behavior. Yet, most research has focused on comparisons across species; experimental tests of the ecological drivers of this variation are lacking. Trinidadian killifish are found in sites that differ in predation intensity: fish in sites with predators experience high extrinsic mortality while fish in sites that lack predators experience high competition. Such decreases in predation are linked with the evolution of a larger brain. Here we tested the link between brain size and shifts in cognition via associative learning tasks and behavioral assays. Predation level significantly impacted cognitive-behavioral profiles of fish. Fish from sites without predators were faster learners and better problem-solvers, however we did not find interactions between predation and brain size for cognitive traits. This indicates cognition evolved as a function of predation and provides experimental evidence that cognition may evolve independently of brain size.
Session: Live and learn: Cognition and Learning
Colony size-dependent quorum threshold in collective decision-making of the ant Temnothorax congruus
Kotoko Kosuge1, Masaru K. Hojo1,2, Takao Sasaki3
1Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, Sanda, Hyogo, Japan, 2School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, Sanda, Hyogo, Japan, 3Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA

Social insects make collective decisions in a variety of situations, which require consensus building. In house-hunting Temnothorax ants, scouts recruit nestmates to new nest sites via tandem running. When the number of individuals in a new nest has reached a threshold, or quorum, consensus decisions are made, and their recruitment behavior shifts from tandem running to direct transport of nestmates. Several studies have indicated that quorum is positively correlated with colony size, but it is still unclear how colonies adjust quorum according to colony size. In this study, we used various colony sizes of T. congruus to test the hypothesis that colonies change quorum using encounter rates in home and new nest site during nest relocation. We found that larger colonies have higher quorum and higher encounter rates at new nests. Interestingly, the relative encounter rate, i.e., encounter rates in the new nest relative to that of the old nest, became almost constant regardless of colony size. Our results support the hypothesis that ant colonies adjust quorum to their colony sizes by evaluating the relative changes in encounter rates between new and old nests.
Session: Virtual Posters
Geographic Variation in Cuticular Hydrocarbon Profiles in Pacific Field Crickets.
Mounica V Kota, Justa Heinen Kay, Marlene Zuk
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA

Insect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) serve a role in desiccation resistance and sexual attractiveness. These two functions are thought to be maximised by different CHC compositions, which should lead to local adaptation between populations experiencing different selection pressures. The Pacific field cricket is distributed throughout the Hawaiian and Cook Islands. In Hawaii, these crickets face strong natural selection from a parasitoid fly that has promoted the evolution of a novel male reproductive morph. The parasitoid and male polymorphism do not occur in the Cook Islands. We captured male and female T. oceanicus on two Hawaiian Islands and three Cook Islands and quantified their CHCs. We also measured temperature and RH at our collection sites to test for associations with cricket CHC profiles. We discovered significant sexual dimorphism in CHC profiles, as well as differences between both island chains and particular islands. The two male reproductive morphs in Hawaii showed distinct CHC expression. Observed differences in T. oceanicus CHC profiles appear to reflect geographic isolation rather than selection in response to local and environmental and social conditions.
Session: Poster Session 2
Intragroup aggression and fecal steroid measures after an Alpha Male Replacement in wild white-faced capuchins
Sarah Kovalaskas1,2, Lev Kolinski2, Marcela E Benítez1,2
1Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA, 2Capuchins at Taboga Research Project, Taboga Forest Reserve, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

Male natal dispersal is common in mammals living in mixed-sex groups. In some species, males continue to transfer into new groups after the initial dispersal. Secondary dispersal functions as an opportunity for males to enter a group at a higher rank and increase chances for reproduction. In white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus), secondarily dispersing males often transfer with familiar conspecifics and enter groups aggressively. We describe an alpha male replacement carried out by six males and its impacts on intragroup aggression and hormone profiles of habituated capuchins in the Taboga Forest Reserve, Costa Rica. During the month of the takeover, we observed three times the normal rates of intragroup aggression, 1.79 aggressions/hour, including one infanticide. When modeling immigrant males' androgen levels, we found an interaction such that subadults had higher testosterone levels in the months following the takeover, compared to the initial month (LMM, takeover*subadult; 𝛃= -1.27, p=.048). This finding supports the idea that physiological responses to immigration events may be dependent upon the manner in which males enter a group and the ages of immigrating males. 
Session: Poster Session 2
Geographic variation in female song structure in two North-temperate populations
Cara A. Krieg
University of Scranton, Scranton, PA, USA

Song in oscine passerines is learned from a tutor during a sensitive period early in development.  As a consequence of this learning process, males returning to breed in their natal area often share song types with other males, leading to geographic variation in song dialects.  North-temperate populations of house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) show intermediate levels of sexual dimorphism in singing.  Female song in this species has an incredibly large range of acoustic structure.  A few individuals can produce near-perfect renditions of male song, while some individuals produce crude songs with only one element type.  Many individuals produce songs somewhere between these extremes.  In this study, I used recordings from females nesting at long-term study populations in Southwest Michigan (USA) and Northeastern Pennsylvania (USA) to describe variation in female song structure on a population-wide scale.  I then used a cluster analysis to determine whether female song in this species shows evidence of geographic dialects.  Female song learning has never been studied in this species.  This study is the first step in exploring if and how female house wrens learn their songs. 
Session: There's a method to this madness: Signal variability
The syntactical structure of mobbing calls in response to visual and acoustic predator stimuli in noise
Anjali Krishna, Mark Fossesca , Avani Desai, Trina Chou, Megan Gall
Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY, USA

For animals that use social communication to mitigate predation pressure, noise can interfere with appropriate anti-predator communication. Vocal communication may be impacted by anthropogenic noise through masking or distraction, either of which could affect the number, type and syntax of calls made in response to predators or conspecific anti-predator calls. Therefore, we investigated the impact of traffic noise on the acoustic response of an inter-specific flock to these signals of predation. Using a repeated measures field experiment we recorded the vocalizations of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), white-breasted nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis), and tufted titmice (Baeolophus bicolor) during exposure to both a visual predator model and acoustic predation stimuli with or without anthropogenic noise masking. We analyzed the recorded vocalizations in the pre-, during-, and post-trial periods, and quantified the changes that occurred in call number, type, and note composition. We then used these data to determine which mechanisms were responsible for shifts in vocalizations.    
Session: Virtual Posters
Disruption of air particle movement affects mating success in multimodal signaling wolf spider
Pallabi Kundu1, Noori Choi1, Roger Santer1, 2, Aaron Rundus1, 3, Eileen Hebets1
1University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA, 2Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, Wales, 3West Chester University, Chester County, Pennsylvania, USA

Schizocosa wolf spiders have become a model system for exploring the role of multimodal communication with the focus on visual and vibratory signaling. Yet multiple studies on S. retrorsa have found that in the absence of both visual and vibratory cues, female-male pairs are able to successfully copulate. It has been suggested that S. retrorsa may rely on a third signaling modality during courtship -air particle movement- which is likely perceived using thin sensory hairs called trichobothria. In this study, we tested the role of air-particle movement on mating success through mating trials with randomly paired S. retrorsa females and males in the dark and on granite in 2 signaling environments - without (No Noise) and with (Noise) introduced air-particle movement. Our treatments significantly impacted mating success, as 54% of pairs mated in No Noise, compared to only 15% in Noise. Higher rates of leg waving - a dynamic movement that has been shown to produce air particle movement - resulted in higher mating success across conditions with the rate being higher in No Noise. Thus, artificially induced air particle movement disrupts mating success and alters male courtship signaling.
Session: Virtual Talks
Resolving the paradox of warning signal diversity with predator learning
Chi-Yun Kuo
Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, NA, Taiwan

Stable coexistence of multiple warning signals poses an evolutionary puzzle - theory says it shouldn't happen, yet we find it in lots of communities in nature. Spatial heterogeneity of predators and prey has been proposed as a potential resolution, but it cannot explain the numerous occasions in which prey bearing distinct warning signals coexist without any obvious temporal or spatial segregations. One potential solution might be how predators learn. While classical conditioning (Pavlovian learning) was the first mechanism proposed to explain avoidance learning, it was dismissed as too simple to account for warning signal diversity. I used a simulation approach to show that Pavlovian learning can predict warning signal diversity; predators that retain learned avoidance for a sufficiently long time can negate the positive frequency dependent selection that operates on coexisting warning signals. Moreover, the Pavlovian learning framework allows integration of empirical learning data to evaluate how likely are predators to facilitate warning signal diversity. 
Session: Think Twice: Predator-Prey Interactions
The Effect of Temperature on Fish Swimming and Schooling is Context Dependent
Maria Kuruvilla1, Anthony Dell2,4, Ashley Olson3, Jason Knouft2,4, John Grady2, Jacob Forbes5, Andrew Berdahl1
1University of Washington, Seattle, Washinton, USA, 2National Great Rivers Research and Education Center, East Alton, Illinois, USA, 3Federation University Australia, Churchill, Victoria, Australia, 4Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA, 5Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Edwardsville, Illinois, USA

Temperature is highly influential on the physiology and behaviour of ectotherms. In fish, temperature affects social interactions such as schooling behaviour, a common defence against predation. However, the effect of temperature on the ability of schooling fish to collectively respond to a predator is unknown. Here we used a loom stimulus to simulate an approaching predator that elicited a fleeing response in schooling fish over a range of water temperatures (9-29°C) and group sizes (1-16 fish). While speed and acceleration always exhibited a positive curvilinear response to temperature, the optimal temperature at which performance peaked was different during the predation threat versus when they were unperturbed. Similarly,  group-level metrics were sensitive to temperature immediately after a loom stimulus but showed no response to temperature during unperturbed swimming. Our results suggest that ectothermic fish may be able to compensate for their slower swim speeds by increasing their sensitivity to startle in response to a predation threat. More generally, we show that in ectotherms the effect of temperature on a behavioural trait may be highly dependent on the context.
Session: Think Twice: Predator-Prey Interactions
Male sexual display rate and the ventral posterior amygdala volume in wild-caught lizards, Uta stansburiana
Lara LaDage1, Tracy Yu2, Peter Zani3
1Penn State Altoona, Altoona, PA, USA, 2Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA, 3University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point, Stevens Point, WI, USA

Several areas of the vertebrate brain are involved in facilitating and inhibiting sexual behaviors and displays. In the laboratory, a higher rate of sexual displays correlates with a larger ventral posterior amygdala (VPA), an area of the brain involved in the expression of sexual display behaviors, as well as larger VPA neuron somas. However, it is unclear if individuals in the field reflect similar patterns, as there are many more selective pressures in the field that may also modulate the VPA architecture. In the current study, we examined variation in VPA volume and neuron soma volume in wild-caught common side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) from two different populations. In a population from Nevada, males experience high predation pressures and have decreased sexual display rates during the breeding season, whereas the Oregon population has lower levels of predation and higher rates of male sexual displays. We found that wild-caught males from the population with lower display rates also exhibited decreased VPA volume and VPA neuron cell soma volume, which may suggest that decreased display rate, possibly due to increased predation rate, covaries with VPA attributes.  
Session: You Got A Lot of Nerve: Neuroethology
Behavioral characterization of musth in Asian elephants: Comparison of wild and zoo-housed populations
Chase A. LaDue1, Rajnish P.G. Vandercone2, Wendy K. Kiso3, Elizabeth W. Freeman1
1George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA, 2Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Mihintale, Sri Lanka, 3White Oak Conservation Foundation, Yulee, FL, USA

Studies of wild and zoo-housed animals offer insight into behavioral variation across a range of conditions. Male Asian elephants undergo a sexual state called "musth," and the ability to manage musth males to enhance breeding success and overall wellness of elephants is dependent upon better understanding how intrinsic and extrinsic factors influence male behavioral variation around musth. Here, we observed 62 wild male elephants in Sri Lanka and compared their behavior to 26 elephants managed in US zoos. Musth's behavioral correlates (including changes in locomotion, foraging, alertness, and chemosensory behavior) were similar in wild and zoo-housed elephants. We also found that behavioral variation around musth was associated with intrinsic (e.g., musth stage, age) and extrinsic factors (e.g., space availability, temperature) in zoo-housed elephants, indicating that musth may be plastic in changing environments. As musth progressed, distinct behavioral signatures defined four stages of sexual activity in male elephants. These results show the behavioral changes that occur during musth in Asian elephants, progressing in stages that can be distinguished by visual indicators.
Session: Virtual Talks
Among-individual differences in auditory and physical cognitive abilities in zebra finches
Connor T. Lambert1, Prateek K. Sahu1, Christopher B. Sturdy1,2, Lauren M. Guillette1
1Department of Psychology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, 2Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute, University of Albert, Edmonton, AB, Canada

Many species display wide variation in how quickly different individuals learn, and understanding these individual differences is essential for understanding cognitive evolution because natural selection acts at the individual level. However, little is known about the extent to which learning abilities in animals are related or dissociable, i.e. does learning ability translate across different ecological/sensory contexts? We examined learning speed of thirty-two zebra finches in seven distinct learning tasks- four foraging board tasks involving visual and structural information, and three acoustic operant box tasks- to examine (1) if learning is correlated and repeatable across tasks, and (2) if learning speed relates to learning generalization. We found birds' relative performance across the seven learning tasks was weakly repeatable and could be partly explained by common factor.  Learning speed did not correlate with generalization ability. These results suggest that zebra finch learning abilities across different ecological/sensory domains involves some common mechanism that could be considered domain-general learning or a non-cognitive mechanism such as motivation.
Session: Rack your brain: Behavioral Plasticity & Cognition
Resource access buffers against effects of reproduction on future ability to provide care in a burying beetle
Georgia A. Lambert, Per T. Smiseth
University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, United Kingdom

Studies investigating the costs of reproduction often find that increased allocation to current reproduction is associated with a reduction in future fecundity. In species that provide parental care, this may be mediated through a reduced future ability to provide care. We tested this idea in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides by manipulating female brood size and resource access during a current breeding attempt and measuring the level of parental care females provided during a subsequent breeding attempt. Females provided the same level of care regardless of previous brood size and resource access, suggesting that neither affected future ability to provide care. This may reflect that parents feed on carrion during breeding, which may buffer against any costs of previous breeding attempts. Our results show that increased allocation to current reproduction is not associated with a reduced future ability to provide care. Nevertheless, this may reflect unique aspects of our study system, and we encourage future work on systems where parents do not have access to a rich resource during breeding.
Session: Virtual Posters
ManyBirds: a multi-site Open Science approach to avian cognition and behaviour research
Megan Lambert1, Stephan Reber2, Vedrana Slipogor3, Claudia Mettke-Hofmann4, Emma Arbeau5, Elias Garcia-Pelegrin6, Rachael Miller6,7
1University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Messerli Research Institute, Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Lund University, Department of Cognitive Science, Lund, Skåne, Sweden, 3University of South Bohemia, Department of Zoology, České Budějovice, South Bohemia, Czech Republic, 4Liverpool John Moores University, School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Liverpool, Merseyside, United Kingdom, 5No current affiliation, N/A, N/A, France, 6University of Cambridge, Department of Psychology, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom, 7Anglia Ruskin University, School of Life Sciences, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom

Investigating the evolution of cognition ideally requires large and diverse samples of individuals and species; however, these can be difficult to obtain by single labs or institutions, leading to potential reproducibility and generalisation issues. To help mitigate these issues, we have established a multi-site collaborative Open Science approach called the ManyBirds Project, following the lead of exemplary big-team science projects (e.g., ManyBabies, ManyPrimates). In this talk, we outline a) the suitability of birds for large-scale comparisons; b) a 'snapshot' review of recent avian cognition research; c) the ManyBirds project, with plans, infrastructure, limitations, implications and future directions. With a currently open call for Study 1 on neophobia (i.e. responses to novelty) in birds, we are seeking collaborations across the world, with any bird species and any site (including zoos, field, lab, private). Ultimately, we hope to promote collaboration between ManyX projects to allow for wider investigation of the evolution of cognition across all animals, including potentially humans.
Session: Puzzling Animals: Learning and Cognition
No support for the causal cognition required to solve a balance task in Goffin's cockatoos
Poppy J Lambert1, Sarah R Beck2, Sabine Tebbich3, Alice M I Auersperg1
1University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 3University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

Problem solving tasks with balances can be used to investigate causal cognition relating to the object property of weight. We presented a novel balance task to a group of Goffin's cockatoos, a tool-using and innovative parrot. We first trained them to compress the arm of the balance downward with their leg, to the heights of two different windows (higher/lower) to gain access to a reward. Then we presented a modified set-up where the balance arm could only be moved downward (to the height of one window, either higher or lower) by dropping a weighted object from above. The birds did not show the ability to link the effort required to compress the arm to (any knowledge of) the downward force the heavy/light object would exert. Furthermore, they did not learn the relationship between object weight and the distance the arm would move downward over 100 trials. These findings suggest that the species could be limited in their ability to transfer or flexibly use knowledge of object-object interactions across contexts (e.g. a branch bowing under their own weight, a balance arm being displaced), and are limited in their recognition of the causal link between weight and object displacement. 
Session: Learning is the way, or is it? Cognition and Learning
Heritable and sex-specific variation in the development of social behavior in wild baboons
Elizabeth Lange1, Madison Griffin1, Arielle S. Fogel1, Elizabeth A. Archie2, Jenny Tung1,3, Susan C. Alberts1
1Duke University, Durham, NC, USA, 2University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA, 3Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Saxony, Germany

Affiliative social bonds, where individuals form differentiated social relationships with members of their social group, are a key determinant of fitness in many species. However, despite their importance, little is known about how social bonds develop and if the development of social behavior is heritable—information crucial to understanding the evolution of social behavior via natural selection. Here, we assessed the genetic and environmental determinants of an important social developmental milestone in baboons—age at first grooming behavior—using five decades of longitudinal observational data from a wild population (N=731). Using a model selection approach combined with the quantitative genetic animal model, we found that age at first grooming behavior is weakly heritable (h2 = 4.2%). In addition, female infants first groom at a median age of 13 months, while male infants groom later, at a median age of 15 months. We also found that infants in smaller groups tend to groom earlier than those in larger groups. These results suggest that developmental milestones of social behavior are partially heritable and that sex differences in grooming begin at a young age.
Session: Virtual Talks
Influence of parental genotype and reproductive environment on offspring reproductive behavior
Robert A. S. Laroche1, Kelly L. Weinersmith1, Lisa Angeloni2, Jeffrey Baylis3, Scott P. Egan1, Daniel D. Wiegmann4
1Rice University, Houston, TX, USA, 2Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA, 3University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI, USA, 4Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH, USA

How traits are inherited informs how selection may act on these traits. In addition to genetic inheritance, ecological inheritance-the passing of environmental conditions to offspring-shapes offspring traits. Labile traits such as behaviors, life history traits or physiological responses are strongly influenced by the environment and thus may be particularly subject to ecological inheritance. In smallmouth bass, there is evidence that-through ecological inheritance-reproductive timing of parents can even result in an inverse relationship between parental and offspring reproductive phenotype. Using genomic data from a 10 year study on smallmouth bass, we construct a pedigree for a closed-lake population. We employ a mixed-effect model to estimate the portion of variation in reproductive phenotype-size, age and within-season timing of reproduction-explained by additive genetic variance versus parental-environmental effect. Thus, we test the hypothesis that reproductive phenotype is influenced both by genetic inheritance and ecological-inheritance, and that these two mechanisms relating traits of parents and offspring can differ in the direction of their impact on offspring phenotype.
Session: Is it all in their genes? Genetic Effects
Call elaboration insures calls against unflattering overlap in túngara frog choruses
Luke C. Larter1, Michael J. Ryan1,2
1The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA, 2the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Gamboa, Panama

In chorusing species, signals from nearby males can interact to influence the attractiveness of these signals to females. As such, males signal strategically to maximize signal attractiveness within the signaling milieu. Túngara frogs produce a 2-part advertisement call: a whine followed by 0-7 chucks. We show that when calls overlap, females strongly discriminate against leading calls when the leading call's chuck is overlapped by the first 150ms of the lagging call's whine (when the whine is highest in amplitude). Call overlap of this nature was common in experimental choruses of various sizes, and calls with a greater number of chucks appended were significantly more likely to have at least 1 chuck remaining free from such overlap. This rescuing effect of additional chucks was particularly pronounced in larger choruses. Calls with more chucks are more attractive in this species during binary choice tests, but there are diminishing returns in the advantage of adding more chucks. We suggest that additional chucks may also promote attractiveness by acting as insurance against having all chucks obscured by rivals when calling in the dense choruses this species forms in the wild.
Session: Chirps, Croaks and more! Acoustic Communication
Social partner choice in Paper wasps
Emily C. Laub1, Noa Pinter-Wollman2, Elizabeth A. Tibbetts1
1University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, 2University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Theory suggests that positive assortment between beneficial cooperators may play a role in the evolution of cooperation. However, little empirical work has tested the individual traits linked with cooperative behavior or the process by which social partners are chosen. Paper wasps (P. fuscatus) provide an opportunity to investigate how individuals choose social partners. Paper wasp nest-founding queens synchronously "shop" for social partners, engaging with many potential nest-mates before settling on cooperative nests. In this project, we use social network analysis to evaluate how individual traits (body mass, personality, and social intelligence) influence shopping behavior and assortment in queens. With three years of field studies, we evaluated wasp traits, individually marked them, released them into a large enclosure provisioned with nest sites, and then recorded associations. Body mass and social intelligence significantly impact both the process and outcome of partner choice, while personality did not. Our results demonstrate that social partner assessment and assortment may have an important role in the evolution of cooperation.  
Session: Long Live the Queen?: Insect Social Behavior
The effects of nestling size and parental care on development of offspring physiology.
Zachary Laubach1, Sage Madden2, Aleea Pardue1, Kim Hoke3, Rebecca Safran1
1University of Colorado, Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA, 2University of Califiornia, Davis, Davis, CA, USA, 3Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA

Size and growth early in life are important determinants of physiological development and offspring survival. In birds, asynchronous hatching can result in differences in nestling size, leaving smaller nestlings at a competitive disadvantage. Moreover, parental care, which is necessary for nestling growth, may modify the relationship between nestling size and physiology. We used data from n = 44 wild barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from which we collected fasting blood glucose at baseline and in response to standardized stressor to test the hypothesis that smaller nestlings will have dysregulated glucose metabolism, and that this relationship will be most pronounced in nests with low parental care. We found that larger nestlings had a greater increase in blood glucose (β = 15.1, 95% CI: -2.76, 32.94 mg/dl glucose difference) than the smallest nestlings, which appear to exhibit a blunted glucose response. Given that glucose metabolism is essential for growth and considering that mobilization of glucose is a primary function of the vertebrate stress response, these results suggest that physiological costs may be part of the disadvantage of being small during early life.
Session: Virtual Talks
The evolution of parental care modes in birds
Pablo Lavaniegos-Puebla, Alejandro Gonzalez-Voyer, Verónica Rincón-Rubio
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico

Birds display a wide variation in the contribution of each sex on parental care, leading us to observe different parental care modes across species. While biparental care occurs in the majority of species, other species show uniparental care by the female or the male, cooperative care, and no care. Parental care in birds has been extensively studied at the population level, but we still know little regarding the origin and evolutionary history of parental care diversity in the group. Thus, the aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive description of the origin and evolutionary transitions between parental care modes in birds. By means of Bayesian models of trait evolution, we estimated the ancestral state and the transition rates between care modes using data for 5,438 species, while taking both uncertainty on rates and on phylogeny into account. The results show that the transitions to biparental care from other care modes are more common than the transitions in the opposite direction. Besides that, uniparental care by the male is the most likely ancestral state. Overall, these results suggest that biparental care is central in the evolution of other parental care modes.  
Session: For the love of others: Social evolution and behavior
Self and Other Play and Grooming in White-cheeked Gibbons (Nomascus leucogenys)
Adriana LaVarco1, Cortni Borgerson1, Jillian Fazio2, Julian Keenan1
1Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ, USA, 2Turtle Back Zoo, West Orange, NJ, USA

Gibbons (Nomascus leucogenys) are understudied when compared to other apes and their social interactions are not entirely understood. For example, both their desire and ability to engage in self-directed and other-directed stimulation has not been fully described.  We observed four gibbons (2F, 2M; 1 mother, her biological offspring, and 2 foster offspring) at the Essex County Turtle Back Zoo, New Jersey to compare the social interaction, grooming, and play with oneself and others. We predicted Gibbons would prefer other-grooming and play over self-grooming and play, as these are typical signs of the desire for social contact. Both grooming and play behavior was compared across a 2-month period. It was found that other-stimulation was significantly greater than self-stimulation (p< 0.0001). Furthermore, individuals played with others significantly more than they played with themselves (p< 0.0001). Further, individual animal grooming revealed reciprocal behaviors and reciprocal grooming. These data indicate Gibbons have a high degree of social affinity and similar to other primates, being stimulated by (and stimulating) others is preferred over self-stimulation.
Session: Virtual Posters
Though she be but little, she is fierce: the multiple effects of frog-biting midges on frog calls
Brian C. Leavell1, Ximena E. Bernal1,2
1Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA, 2Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Ancón, Panama

Communication comes with the risk that natural enemies might eavesdrop on signals to detect and find their signaling prey. Yet, signalers that assess and respond to variation in predation risk can deploy risk-dependent behaviors to mitigate these potential costs. Here, we show that frog-biting midges limit the elaboration of their frog victims' sexual signal based on the rate of their attacks. Further, by eliciting anti-midge defenses in their victim, these midges indirectly enhance the elaboration of their victim's rival. We discuss the fitness implications of these effects.
Session: Escaping the Enemy: Antipredator Strategies
Behavioral assays to measure the stress response in the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma
Alexandre Lebel, David Gonçalves
Institute of Science and Environment, University of Saint Joseph, Macao SAR, China

Marine medaka is a potential behavioral model to test the impact of global changes in marine fish. However, its behavioral repertoire and paradigms to test its response to stressors have been poorly investigated. This study describes the ontogeny of the phototaxis response and the modulation by visual and chemical cues to a putative stress response to social isolation. One hour before testing, isolated adults were: 1) placed in visual contact with conspecifics; 2) exposed to a continuous flow of fish-holding water; 3) simultaneously exposed to visual and chemical stimuli; 4) kept in isolation until testing. We measured the behavioral response to the light/dark preference and open-field test. Results showed an increasing preference for the light area starting from 6 dph. In adults, the preference for the light area was robust, but no significant difference between treatments was detected. Results for the open-field suggest a more reliable indicator of the stress response. In both tests, we detected increased swimming activity in the groups that had been exposed to the chemical stimuli, suggesting the importance of chemical communication in the social behavior of the species.
Session: Virtual Talks
The impacts of disturbed habitat gradients on field mice occupation and distribution
Danielle N Lee, Bethany Kassebaum, Hannah-Beth Griffis, Benjamin Schuette, Megan Morrow, Alexis Acoff, Jack Richards, Kevin Peoples
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL, USA

We studied species diversity and richness of various field mice in natural habitats along a peri-rural-urban gradient. Commensal and wild species of mice are able to live and thrive across a continuum of natural to human-modified landscapes and disturbed habitats. We live-trapped and released locally occurring mice (Mus, Zapus, Microtus, and Peromyscus) across old field and brown field habitats in landscapes that experience low levels of disturbance, comparing capture frequency and abundance. Microtus were found in both old and brownfields, captured in higher frequencies in field sites with more open grasslands, and had higher capture frequencies than all other observed species. Peromyscus were exclusively trapped in brownfields, but captured at higher frequencies in field sites adjacent to wooded corridors. Although both Mus and Zapus were captured in old and brown fields, Mus were captured primarily in fields adjacent to outbuildings, and Zapus were only caught in tall grasses along the edges of field sites that bordered ponds and wooded areas. This suggests surrounding environment and habitat features do seem to contribute to species differences in occurrence and abundance.
Session: Poster Session 1
Preliminary Data Suggest Feral Honey Bees Tolerate Thermal Stress Better Than Managed Honey Bees
Anngely C. Leeds, James C. Nieh
University of California, San Diego , La Jolla, California, USA

Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide pollination services for many crops globally, but extreme weather and changing temperatures due to the climate crisis threaten the health of the species. Although we know that honey bee survival can decrease in response to thermal stress, we know less about how thermal stress affects feral honey bees given that they are potentially adapted to higher heat levels in certain climates. Our research investigated the effect of extreme hot and cold temperatures on feral and managed honey bees in San Diego County, California, by measuring survival between the two groups after exposure to incubator heat shock or cold shock. In this region, the majority of feral honey bees are genetically admixed with Apis mellifera scutellata, from Africa. In general, feral honey bees tolerated thermal stress better than managed honey bees. Feral bees had higher survival than managed honey bees following heat shock and cold shock. Future research regarding the effect of climate change on honey bees should account for the difference in survival between feral honey bees and managed honey bees following exposure to extreme temperatures.
Session: Poster Session 1
Structure and Function in the Developing Grass Carp Midbrain
Matthew K LeFauve1, Aicha Khalaf1, Amy E George2, Cayla L Carlson2, Benjamin H Stahlschmidt2, Duane C Chapman2, Jesse R Fischer2, Christopher D Kassotis1
1Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA, 2USA Geological Survey, Columbia, MO, USA

Grass carp are large-bodied, riverine fishes that have been frequently introduced as environmental engineering agents for the control of aquatic vegetation. Their introduction has had unintended consequences such as degrading the spawning grounds for native fishes and increasing the potential for widespread eutrophication. Previous work has shown grass carp are likely entering new ecosystems in North America during early larval development, therefore an improved understanding of behavior and physiology during early life stages is needed. In this study we focused on sensory-processing regions of the midbrain, assessing the development of the midbrain using larval tissue stained with cresyl violet. Neural activity in this region during a standardized behavioral assay was assessed with immunofluorescence to detect phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6. Preliminary results suggest that grass carp develop these midbrain regions very early in ontogeny to aid in multi-modal sensory processing that may help them navigate to nursery habitats.
Session: Virtual Talks
Quantifying variation in visual signals within a spider clade
Kenna D. S. Lehmann1, Rowan McGinley2, Mitch Bern3, Eileen Hebets1
1University of Nebraska--Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA, 2Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA, 3North Star High School, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA

One goal in the study of animal communication is to understand the selection pressures, conditions, and constraints that govern the evolution of multimodal signaling and signal complexity. To achieve this goal, we must first appropriately describe or quantify signals in several species with an understood phylogenetic relationship. Such phylogenetic comparisons have been applied to vocal communication to great success and we are at the cusp of applying this approach to multimodal signaling. Here, we use video analysis software and machine learning to quantify the visual mating signals of Schizocosa wolf spiders with the aims of i) quantifying the complexity of visual signals within each species, ii) understanding the effects of insufficient diet on mating signal effort and complexity, and iii) comparing visual signals among species. The quantification of visual signals across many Schizocosa species, when combined with work on visual ornamentation and the vibratory components and production mechanisms of mating signals, will allow us to answer questions about the evolution of complex multimodal signals in a variety of habitats and signaling conditions.
Session: Virtual Talks
The role of body-representation in dogs in a spatial problem-solving task
Rita Lenkei1,2, Enikő Kubinyi1, Petra Dobos1, Péter Pongrácz1
1Department of Ethology, Eötvös Loránd University, ELTE, Budapest, Hungary, 2Doctoral School of Biology, Institute of Biology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary

One of the most elemental abilities connected to self-representation is body-representation. As the dog (Canis familiaris) is a large, fast-moving terrestrial predator, body-representation might play a role in coping effectively with the physical and also social environment. Earlier, we found that dogs approach an opening slower that is too small to go through compared to a large enough one. However, in the case of these door choice tasks, there was only one opening at a time, thus, dogs approached it regardless of its size. Here we tested how dogs react if, besides the door, there is an alternative way to solve the problem (bypassing the obstacle via making a detour around it). If dogs do not even approach the door (if it is too small) and choose the other but longer route, it would indicate that they are indeed able to assess the relationship between their body and the size of the gap. We tested how companion dogs (N=66) solve this problem in a detour test, where there was a lockable door on a fence (that was either locked, too small or large enough). We found that dogs indeed chose to detour the obstacle without approaching the opening when it was too small.
Session: Virtual Posters
Endocrine and Spatial Correlates of Infanticidal Behavior in Ranitomeya imitator
Amaris R. Lewis, Billie C. Goolsby, Lauren A. O'Connell
Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA

Parental decisions such as care or neglect are environmentally and internally driven in animals, but how environment and physiology interface to produce such critical behaviors remains poorly understood. The Mimic poison frog (Ranitomeya imitator) is biparental and territorial, where tadpoles are altricial and rely on their parents for their survival. To elucidate how distinct environmental cues affect parental behavior, we conducted experiments to clarify the effects of offspring phenotype, offspring location, and territoriality. We found that spatial use, rather than visual or olfactory cues, drives maternal feeding over a period of two weeks. Introducing adults across reproductive states and sex to new tanks with a clutch of unrelated, fertilized eggs led to diverse behavioral outcomes of care, violence, and/or neglect. Finally, violence towards infants correlates with higher levels of testosterone and corticosterone in adults. These findings suggest that changes to spatial use and territorial status may be predictors of parental care in R. imitator and lay a foundation for investigations into the endocrine and neurobiological bases of parental behavior in an amphibian.
Session: Virtual Posters
Prostaglandin F Triggers Female Reproductive Pheromone Signaling in Astatotilapia burtoni
Cheng-Yu Li, Karli Lawrence, John Merlo-Coyne, Scott Juntti
University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA

Pheromones play essential roles in reproduction in many species. Prostaglandin F (PGF) acts as a female reproductive hormone, and a sex pheromone in some species. Here, we use Astatotilapia burtoni to investigate the role of PGF in female pheromonal signaling in African cichlids. We found that adult males exhibit a strong preference for gravid female odors. Injection of a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor abolishes this attractivity of gravid females, showing the necessity of prostaglandins for pheromonal signaling. However, male cichlids are insensitive to PGF, but they do exhibit a preference for females injected with PGF. This attractiveness is independent of the PGF hormonal receptor Ptgfr, indicating this pheromone signaling derives from PGF metabolization. We also discovered that cichlids and other fish that are insensitive to PGF lack the olfactory receptor Or114 that zebrafish use to detect PGF. These results indicate that PGF itself is not a pheromone to induce male preference in cichlids; rather, it plays a key role in initiating physiological responses to prime females to become attractive.
Session: You Got A Lot of Nerve: Neuroethology
Immune Division of Labour: Link between behaviour and immunity in a clonal ant
Zimai Li, Yuko Ulrich
Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Jena, Thuringia, Germany

To combat the increased risk of disease outbreak that is associated with group-living, social insects have evolved a wide range of collective behavioural defences that complement individual immune defences. Here, we ask whether ant colonies display a form of "immune division of labour", by testing if individual immune activity is adjusted to the infection risk associated with different behavioural roles and social network positions, and whether the distribution of immune activity among colony members can slow disease spread. We test this hypothesis in the clonal raider ant, whose unique biology enables us to quantify differences in immune investment and behaviour among workers of identical age and genotype. We quantify the relationship between individual task performance and network position and individual immune activity and assess the epidemiological effects of the distribution of immune activity using simulations.The study sheds light on the fundamental relationship between immunity and behaviour and provides new insights into the epidemiological effects of heterogeneity in social groups.  
Session: Poster Session 2
How does the colony environment affect the grooming behavior of two honey bee species?
Hongmei Li-Byarlay1, Hosea Belton1, Shudong Luo2
1Central State University, Wilberforce, OH, USA, 2Institute for Apicultural Research, Beijing, Beijing, China

The grooming behaviors of honey bees have been used as one of the beneficial traits for breeding. Worker bees can perform either auto-grooming individually or allogrooming as a group in the honeybee colonies. High levels of grooming can also help to remove mites (Varroa destructor) from the body of worker bees. Eastern honey bees (Apis cerana) in Asia as original hosts of Varroa mites may display high levels of grooming behavior than European honey bees (Apis mellifera). But it is unknown whether the foster environment affects the grooming behavior when workers of one species are placed in the colony of the other species. Hence, we designed two experiments to observe the grooming behavior of workers in an arena as one individual bee and then with a group of four bees. Our results support previous research that the Apis cerana colony displayed more significant allogrooming when compared to Apis mellifera. Additional results will show the potential effects of the environment on the grooming behavior
Session: Virtual Talks
Nest Site Selection Across an Urban Matrix
Alfredo Llamas1, Jennifer Phillips1
1Texas A&M University-San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 2Texas A&M University-San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA

Anthropogenic sensory pollution, such as light and noise, can have various effects on animal behavior, such as mate choice and song structure. One behavior that has been little studied is where breeding adult birds build their nests in relation to these combined sensory pollutants. How concealed or visible a nest is and begging calls can cue predator detection, which can determine the survival of a clutch or the individual hatchlings, thus light and noise may alter overall parent behavior and survival rates. Previous studies suggest that some species benefit from nesting near noise, which acts as a predator shield, but whether this occurs for light is unknown. Here, we investigate if a community of birds preferentially nest near light and noise pollution, by nest searching across our campus and the San Antonio River Mission Reach in an urban-rural gradient. Our preliminary results show that birds prefer to nest close to light, which may have implications for survival. Data currently being collected will illuminate survival and body condition trends across active nests in Spring 2022.
Session: Poster Session 2
Acoustic communication and anthropogenic noise: a review in anurans and birds
Diego Llusia1, Valentina Zaffaroni-Caorsi2, Julia Gómez-Catasús1, Adrián Barrero1, Juan Traba1, Márcio Borges-Martins3, Rafael Márquez4, Camila Both5
1Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, CAM, Spain, 2Fondazione Edmund Mach, Trento, TN, Italy, 3Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, 4Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, CAM, Spain, 5Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Tramandai, RS, Brazil

Anthropogenic noise is becoming widespread in nature, leading animals to new challenges. As sounds play a fundamental role in social and reproductive behavior, human-made noise may largely impact acoustic communication. Despite a growing research effort on the topic, our understanding of these impacts are still limited. Here we provide a literature review on the effects of anthropogenic noise on anurans and birds, as well as new observational and experimental data from Iberian species, to identify knowledge shortfalls and guide future investigation. Studies found evidence that both airborne and seismic anthropogenic noise cause a plethora of behavioral responses in these taxa, although their consequences in survival and fitness remain less explored. Collaborative efforts between scientists, stakeholders and private and public institutions are imperative to create conservation guidelines and legal instruments that can mitigate the impacts of noise pollution on wildlife.
Session: A Whole New World: Anthropogenic Effects on Behavior
Are you even trying? Skewed performance is evidence of motor constraint in sports and animal displays
David Logue1,2, Tyler Bonnell1
1University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, 2University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, USA

Animal displays include extreme behaviors that seem to push signalers to the limits of their motor abilities. If motor constraints limit display performance, signal evolution will be constrained, and displays can act as reliable "index" signals of quality. In practice, however, it is difficult to determine whether an observed distribution of performance is limited by a motor constraint. We analyzed data from sports (e.g., baseball, basketball, running) because we know a priori that athletes are motivated to maximize performance. Among elite athletes, performance was skewed such that the long tail of the distribution points away from the performance limit. This pattern was also present in animal display data. Bayesian models of performance under constraint allowed us to characterize the challenge faced by athletes and displaying animals. This study shows that skewed performance can be evidence of constrained performance and quantifies the heretofore ambiguous idea that performance reflects the degree of challenge for a given level of behavior.
Session: Not on the same page: Communication & Sexual conflict
Using RNA-seq to understand why we feel sick
Patricia C. Lopes1, Josh J Faber-Hammond2, Chandler Siemonsma1, Sachin Patel1, Suzy C. P Renn2
1Chapman University, Orange, CA, USA, 2Reed College, Portland, OR, USA

The social environment can affect animal physiology, with important health implications. For example, in humans, social isolation is a risk factor for worsened health outcomes. Zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, undergoing an immune challenge and presented with females show reduced behavioral symptoms of sickness, indicating that the social environment influences how these birds respond to an infection. How the social environment changes brain responses to an infection is not known. Using RNA-seq, we studied male zebra finch neural molecular responses to an immune challenge under four social environments. Finches in each social environment showed distinct transcriptomic profiles in response to an endotoxin challenge. Out of the four treatments, males paired with a novel female had the smallest number of differentially expressed genes as a response to endotoxin. Thus, acute changes to the social environment have major implications for how the brain responds to an infection.
Session: Bridging Brain and Behavior in the Americas
Wild and Feral Horse Handling Stress Scale
Sarah W. Low1, Cade A. Torcivia2, Sue M. McDonnell2
1Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA, USA, 2University of Pennsylvania College of Veterinary Medicine, Kennett Square, PA, USA

Organizations managing wild horses must balance animal welfare with on-range population control, staff safety considerations, and public perception of humane animal care. Capture and placement into private care, or treatment with contraception before re-release, are increasingly common. Currently there are no readily available, ethology-informed educational tools for recognizing or auditing handling stress in wild or feral horses. This presentation will describe an illustrated scale to assist handlers or auditors with identification of stress behavior in captive wild and feral horses. Formatted for print or online single-page display, it details behavior for 6 levels of handling stress, from relaxed engagement to extreme avoidance or escape. This work draws upon the authors' experience trapping and handling feral and semi-feral equids, available scientific literature, and systematic observations made at wild horse holding facilities and adoption events. Additional resources included publicly available videos, photos, and professional descriptions of wild and feral horse handling events. Future work will include evaluation of efficacy and validity as an educational tool.
Session: Virtual Posters
How variable are signals?  The receiver side of signal complexity
Jeffrey R Lucas1, Kenneth S Henry2
1Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA, 2University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA

Signals must be diverse to carry information.  We know how much about this diversity is generated, the range of potential information carried, and the fitness consequences of signal use.  We also know about the diversity of receiver responses to this information. We know less about individual variation in signal processing, even though this variation can theoretically degrade signal information content.  Using auditory evoked potentials as an index of auditory processing, we show how 4 songbird species process song elements and call elements derived from the vocal repertoire of each of these species.  Our results suggest that individual variation in the processing of song elements is not broadly different than the processing of call elements. However, the nuthatch mobbing call is processed with very low variation within and across species, and a white-crowned sparrow call note is processed with high variation within species.  These data suggest that song properties are not specifically designed to differentiate between receivers, and that some vocalizations (e.g. mobbing calls) can be designed to maximize information transfer to all receivers.
Session: There's a method to this madness: Signal variability
Direct and indirect effects on agonistic behaviors of house crickets (Acheta domesticus)
Sekhar M A, Ned A. Dochtermann
North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota, USA

Individuals alter their behavior in response to both the same or different behaviors of conspecifics. These direct and indirect effects play a major role in shaping social interactions, especially during conspecific aggression. Here, we quantified the direct and indirect effects influencing aggressive behavior during agonistic interactions in house crickets, Acheta domesticus. Crickets were paired randomly in groups and had their interactions recorded during agonistic interactions. Three interactions—approach, first aggression, and chase—were recorded during each interaction. Indirect effects were quantified using both trait and variance component-based approach. We found that the probability of initiating approach and first aggression was influenced by direct and indirect effects independent of mass. We also quantified how calling parameters vary with opponent. We focused on peak frequency, call amplitude, chirp and syllable—rate & duration. We found substantial opponent induced variation in calling parameters. Estimating indirect effects during social interactions is necessary for understanding behavioral variation at both the within and among individual level.
Session: What is going to work? Team work!: Social Behavior
Assortative mating at an innate immune locus in song sparrows: opposites do not attract
Elizabeth A. MacDougall-Shackleton1, Sydney A. N. Doucette1, Joel W. G. Slade2
1Western University, London, Ontario, Canada, 2California State University Fresno, Fresno, California, USA

Multicellular organisms are beset by parasites and other pathogens. Accordingly, loci involved in immune defence often show signs of pathogen-mediated balancing selection. At adaptive immune loci (most notably the major histocompatibility complex, MHC) disassortative mating often reinforces the effects of balancing selection and further promotes offspring heterozygosity. At innate immune loci, however, it remains unclear whether mate choice ever deviates from random expectations, and if so in what direction (i.e., assortative or disassortative mating). We sequenced the extracellular domain of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), an innate immune gene whose products interact with viral RNA, for 224 song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) sampled from a single breeding population over an eleven-year period. Despite evidence of balancing selection (high nucleotide and haplotype variation; an excess of nonsynonymous substitutions at several codons), social mates were more similar at TLR3 than expected under random mating, not less similar. High levels of individual variation at TLR3 in this population thus appear to be maintained despite, not because of, patterns of mate choice.
Session: You Are (Not) What You Eat: Host-Parasite Interactions
A new auditory-dependent operant task with social reinforcement for songbirds
Matheus Macedo-Lima1, Marcela Fernandez-Vargas2, Luke Remage-Healey3
1University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA, 2Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA, 3University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA

Imposed social isolation is a known stressor for social animals and alters hormone levels, genes, brain, and behavior. Songbirds are valuable models for understanding vocal learning, of which zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) ­- highly social, gregarious songbirds - have been widely employed in neuroscience research. However, many previous behavioral studies with zebra finches have required social isolation, introducing potential confounds. Thus, we devised an operant behavioral method that leverages the social gregariousness of zebra finches to motivate behavior. Using adult zebra finches of both sexes, we show that visual social reinforcement is a strong motivational drive to engage in operant behavior and can even be leveraged to study auditory learning and discrimination. Motivation to gain social reinforcement was higher when engaging with a familiar rather than with a novel individual. Zebra finches remained motivated in an auditory learning challenge and successfully developed discrimination ability towards birdsong or pure tones. Thus, our tool provides an alternative to tasks using food reinforcement and could be applied to a variety of highly social species.
Session: Bridging Brain and Behavior in the Americas
Male dimorphism and alternative mating tactics in an eight-legged world
Glauco Machado
Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Male dimorphism is widespread in insects and arachnids. Larger males with exaggerated weaponry usually exhibit reproductive tactics based on guarding females or monopolizing resources. In turn, smaller males with reduced weaponry rely on alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) that rarely involve male-male aggression. In the last 40 years, we accumulated information on morphological differences between morphs. In some species, we also understand the proximate mechanisms (genetic and physiological) that lead to these morphological differences. Finally, arthropods have been used to test theoretical models on sperm competition between male morphs. Despite these advances, there are many gaps in our knowledge, such as detailed descriptions of the reproductive tactics adopted by each morph, the exitance of behavioral plasticity in these reproductive tactics, possible differences between pre-copulatory and copulatory courtship, and intrasexual morphological divergences in male genitalia. In my talk, I will explore these subjects focusing mostly on harvestmen, an arachnid group with great diversity of forms and behaviors, in which many species exhibit male dimorphism associated with ARTs.
Session: Plenary - Glauco Machado
Social partners influence inter-year space use in the golden-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla)
Anastasia E. Madsen1, Bruce Lyon2, Alexis Chaine3, Dai Shizuka1
1University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA, 2University of California-Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, USA, 3Station d´Ecologie Théorique et Expérimentale du CNRS (UMR5321), Moulis, France

Animal social interactions and space use are two axes of behavior that are often inextricably linked—individuals interact in space, thus space use is an integral component of social behavior. This presents a dilemma in determining causality, i.e., are animals socially linked because they share space, or do they share space because they are socially linked? Demographic turnover events provide a natural experiment for investigating how social dynamics--particularly the loss of social partners—results in changes in space use. We investigated social-spatial influences in a long-term winter study of social behavior in golden-crowned sparrows in Santa Cruz, California. We found that sparrows were more likely to shift their home range centroids when they had lost social connections from the previous year, and that birds were more likely to shift their home range centroids in the same direction and magnitude as their remaining close social partners across some years. This evidence suggests that social relationships influence spatial fidelity in this population, and provides a broad framework for evaluating social-spatial dynamics using natural deaths in wild populations.
Session: Virtual Talks
The social context of Pair-Bond Formation in a Monogamous Species
Adriana Maldonado-Chaparro1,2,3, Wolfgang Forstmeier4, Damien Farine1,5,6
1Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior, Konstanz, Germany, 2University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany, 3Universidad del Rosario, Bogota, Columbia, 4Max Planck Institute for Ornithology , Seewiesen, Germany, 5University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 6Australian National University, Canberra, Australia

The social environment offers important cues for mate assessment and choice. In species that form pair-bonds the decisions about who they pair with may affect reproductive decisions in both sexes. Here, we deployed an automated system for tracking birds to reveal new aspects of pair formation in a monogamous bird. We recorded social associations from 180 individuals across four replicated colonies of zebra finches and tested whether faster pair formation was associated with breeding performance. We quantified the strength and stability of the pair-bond across days prior to breeding, reconstructed the trajectory of the social relationships that lead to the formation of pair-bonds, and measured subsequent reproductive outcomes. By doing so, we revealed a wide range of variation in both, the process of pair-bond formation and the fitness consequences of different trajectories. The stability of social relationships is key for establishing successful pair-bonds and attaining fitness benefits. Our study unraveled, with unprecedented detail, the process of pair-bond formation in large social groups.
Session: Social Competency: An Integrative Approach to Understanding Connections Between Social Information, Decision-Making, and Cognition
Observations of Mating Practice by Non-Sexually Mature Male Belugas (Delphinapterus leucas)
Heather M Manitzas Hill1, Jackson R Ham2, Malin K Lilley3
1St. Mary's University, San Antonio, TX, USA, 2University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, 3University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA

Of the 22 stocks of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), two are critically endangered. Despite research on numerous anthropogenic effects, population numbers are not increasing. Courtship behavior may play a role in breeding success, and if belugas learn or practice courtship behaviors with a suitable social partner, this could be another contributor to their current plight. Based on a long-term study of a beluga population in human care, males of all ages and young females often engage in socio-sexual behavior; however, adult females rarely participate and often display agonistic behavior towards unrelated, young males. Here, we report anecdotal observations where two different juvenile males practiced courtship behaviors with two different adult females, who tolerated the interaction and, in some instances, reciprocated the courtship behavior. The opportunity to observe male role models, in addition to practicing with adult females, may influence future reproductive success. In small populations, there may be limited opportunities for young belugas to engage in mating practice. We hope this initial report will spark further research to explore this rare behavior in greater detail.
Session: Virtual Talks
Spatial cognition and mate choice in a brood parasite bird, the brown-headed cowbird. 
Elsa Mardiné
McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada

Individual traits play a key role in sexual selection. While physical, physiological, and instinctive behavioural traits have been established as influencing in mate choice, recent research suggests that cognitive abilities may also provide adaptive benefits, and thus be selected for. Cognition, defined as the acquisition, retention and use of information from the environment, may provide an adaptive advantage. While spatial memory is likely beneficial to both sexes, brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) rely on female spatial ability to find, parasitize, and monitor host nest for the species' reproductive success. This provides an ideal opportunity to evaluate the role of spatial cognition in mate choice contexts. Thus, we aim to assess the role of spatial memory in both female mate choice and male mate choice. We hypothesize that spatial memory plays a role in mate choice and predict that individuals prefer mates with demonstrated spatial abilities. By directly evaluating the role of spatial memory in -mate choice, this study will further our understanding of behavioural ecology and evolution in brood parasitic cowbirds.
Session: Poster Session 2
Intentional use of attention-getters facilitates cooperative interactions in wild birds
Shai Markman1, Vlad Demartsev2, 3, Yitzchak Ben Mocha1, 4
1University of Haifa - Oranim, Tivon, Israel, 2Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany, 3Department for the Ecology of Animal Societies, Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior, Konstanz, Germany, 4Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel

Communicative acts that function to attract the recipient's attention to the signaller fulfil a fundamental role in initiating cooperative interactions in humans. While non-human species were shown to use attention-getters according to environmental cues for difficulties in signal detection (e.g. low light), adjustment of attention-getters directly to the attentional state of recipients has not been shown in wild animals. Here, we show that wild Eurasian coots (Aves: Fulica atra; n = 20) selectively call toward non-attending chicks to solicit them to approach and take food. These attention-getters fulfil hallmarks that are used to infer first-order intentionality in humans and non-human species, as parents virtually never called when consuming food without chicks (n = 688 feeding events), were more likely to call when the chick did not look at them (n = 1220 feeding events) and were more likely to produce multiple calls when the chick did not approach them. These results demonstrate that a basic communicative skill to initiate cooperative interactions (i.e. feeding), upon its underlying flexible cognitive mechanism (i.e. intentionality), is also found in non-human species.
Session: Puzzling Animals: Learning and Cognition
Dogs Coordinate on the Assurance Game
Mayte Martínez1, Selina Schöndorfer2, Lauren M. Robinson3,4, Sarah F. Brosnan5,6, Friederike Range1
1Domestication Lab, Konrad Lorenz Institute of Ethology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Department of Cognitive Biology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 3Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, 4Department of Behavioral Sciences-Psychology, University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, Michigan, USA, 5Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 6 Departments of Psychology and Philosophy, Neuroscience Institute, Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Studies on coordination often present animals with the choice of either cooperating or remaining inactive, neglecting that in nature, animals may also choose to act alone. These situations can be modeled with the Assurance (or Stag Hunt) game, an economic game that has recently been used to investigate social decision making in primates. Here, we investigated the ability of 11 pet dog dyads (n=22 dogs) to coordinate in the Assurance game. Pairs were presented with two options: they could individually solve an apparatus baited with a low-value reward (Hare) or they could solve together a cooperative apparatus baited with a high-value reward for each dog (Stag). All individuals matched their partner´s choices, but only 3 dyads consistently coordinated on the payoff-dominant strategy (Stag-Stag) once we controlled for side-preferences. Thus, dogs are capable of finding coordinated outcomes,  as do primates, at least in a context in which their partner's actions are visible and coordination always results in the biggest payoff for both individuals. Our results indicate that economic games are a suitable method to test social decision making in canids.
Session: What is going to work? Team work!: Social Behavior
Echolocation signals as important sources of information for studying and monitoring bats in the neotropics
Daniela Martínez-Medina
Instituto Humboldt, Villa de Leyva, Boyacá , Columbia

Among mammals, only bats can use echolocation to navigate their surrounding environment. Producing echolocation pulses, in consequence, bats have evolved a series of morphological specializations, shaped by ecological and behavioral factors. These traits and the diverse acoustic behaviors used for foraging, make bats an excellent group, not only to address questions about their behavior, ecology, and taxonomy but also to develop surveillance and conservation strategies. Recent technological advances also make echolocation one of the most measurable and accessible behaviors. In high diverse regions like Neotropics, this field of study is emerging. In this talk, I discuss the potential of bat bioacoustics in different fields of knowledge, challenges and opportunities of this discipline in mega diverse countries, and initiatives to establish bat sound repositories to promote research in Colombia.  Finally,  by showing how passive recording approaches can be used to monitor bat activity on large time- and space- scales, I will discuss the use of echolocation signals as indicators to assess ecological aspects in an anthropogenic intervention context.     
Session: Bioacoustics in Tropical Forests
Honey Bees Shift Their Nest Building Techniques to Compensate for Repeated Structural Disruption
Peter R. Marting1, Ben Koger2, Michael L. Smith1
1Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA, 2University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany

Many animals build shelters to nest in, and among the most astounding animal architects are the eusocial insects. How honey bees structure and organize their nest in 3 dimensions during the critical early stages after swarming may impact colony performance and survival. By rearranging the nest, we can evaluate the impact that nest structure and growth have on colony performance. Colonies built comb on removable wooden frames which we used to rearrange the frames randomly within the hive box each week for 6 weeks, which disorganized the 3D structure of the existing comb ("shuffled" colonies). Surprisingly, shuffled and control colonies did not differ in any colony-level performance metrics we measured, but did differ in how individual combs grew over time within the nest. Control colonies built new comb on all leading edges relatively evenly, while shuffled colonies rapidly expanded some combs but abandoned others, focusing new comb growth on areas that would create the largest contiguous nest fragment. Honey bees can rapidly shift their nest construction paradigm at no measured cost to colony-level performance; an intriguing example of resilience provided by the superorganism.
Session: Long Live the Queen?: Insect Social Behavior
Monopolizability of mating opportunities promotes within-community killing in chimpanzees
Anthony P. Massaro1, Emily E. Wroblewski2, Deus C. Mjungu3, Joseph T. Feldblum4,5, Emily E. Boehm6, Nisarg P. Desai7, Steffen Foerster5, Rebecca S. Rudicell8, Beatrice H. Hahn9,10, Anne E. Pusey5, Michael L. Wilson1,7,11
1Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN, USA, 2Department of Anthropology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA, 3Gombe Stream Research Centre, Kigoma, Tanzania, 4Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, 5Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA, 6Center for Faculty Excellence, University of North Carolina- Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA, 7Department of Anthropology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA, 8Takeda, Cambridge, MA, USA, 9Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA, 10Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA, 11Institute on the Environment, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA

Although male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) depend on allies for support in inter-group conflict, they sometimes kill grown males of their own communities. Using data from two neighboring communities at Gombe National Park and published data from other long-term study sites, we tested several hypotheses proposed to explain within-group killings. We tested the extent to which rates of aggression, degree of outgroup threat, and reproductive competition predict within-group killing. Mitumba and Kasekela males did not differ in their overall rate of aggression. Attackers increased their share of mating and paternity following known and inferred killings. More killing occurred within the smaller Mitumba community, where mating opportunities with fertile females were more monopolizable. Other measures of competition did not explain this trend. Across study sites, the best predictor of within-community killing was an index of the degree to which mating opportunities can be monopolized by the highest-ranking male.  Our findings support the hypothesis that within-community killing is a strategy to eliminate reproductive rivals, which is more likely to pay off when females are few.
Session: Can't We All Just Get Along? Agonisms and Social Behavior
Consequences of the environment: timing of litter parturition and litter synchrony in a social rodent
Miles Matchinske1, Luis Ebensperger2, Sebastián Abades3, Loren D. Hayes1
1University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA, 2Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Región Metropolitana, Chile, 3Universidad Mayor, Santiago, Región Metropolitana, Chile

Variation in the timing of reproduction, which is influenced by environmental and individual factors, may impact population fitness through differences in early-life effects on offspring. An 11-year dataset on a natural, free-living population of degus (Octodon degus), a social rodent endemic to Chile, was used to test predictions that ecological, social, and maternal conditions during the breeding season are associated with the timing of litter parturition and intragroup litter synchrony. Measures of food access of females during breeding predicted their parturition day. Furthermore, differences in food abundance and phenotypical masculinization between female groupmates predicted differences in their parturition day. Females that experienced more food during breeding gave birth earlier in the year and pairs of females with similar phenotypical masculinization and access to food shared greater differences in their parturition day. Examining predictors of litter synchrony both between and within groups across multiple populations may provide insight into how different environmental conditions influence the timing of litter parturition in degus.
Session: Poster Session 2
Mutual exploitation? How learning affects pollination and foraging success 
Maggie M. Mayberry1, Katherine C. Naumer1, Annaliese N. Novinger1, Dalton M. McCart1, Rachel Wilkins1, Haley Muse1, Ashman Tia-Lynn2, Russell Avery L. 1
1Missouri State University, Springfield, MO, USA, 2University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Plant-pollinator interactions frequently involve cooperation, as well as conflict. Pollinators often must learn to become proficient at extracting food rewards from flowers. Learning benefits the pollinator by enhancing reward collection and is expected to benefit the plant by increasing transfer of conspecific pollen. Yet when flowers offer pollen (the male plant gamete) as a reward, proficient foragers could be costly for the plant ("the pollen dilemma"). Thus, using four different plant species we examined whether (1) benefits to bee and plant trade off when the reward is pollen and (2) whether plants exploit their pollinators by receiving more pollen when learning is more difficult. As expected, bees always collected pollen more efficiently with experience regardless of flower type. However, preliminary data suggests that experienced bees deposit more pollen on stigmas when the flower type takes longer to learn. Our results suggest that difficult-to-learn flowers exploit constraints on pollinator learning to achieve greater pollination even as the pollinator becomes better at collecting pollen.  
Session: Puzzling Animals: Learning and Cognition
Altered Animal Behavior in Response to Environmental Plastic Pollution: A Review
Kayleigh A Mazariegos, Richard Buchholz
University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS, USA

The unprecedented use and improper disposal of plastic products have resulted in frequent wildlife encounters with synthetic materials; however, it is not well understood how these interactions may impact animal behavior. Conservation efforts inherently rely on the actions and reactions of wildlife in response to the environment to make management decisions. As plastic waste accumulates, degrades, and leaches into habitats, we expect to see an increase in altered behavior. In this review, we discuss the documented extent to which plastic has influenced the behavior of organisms and its implications for the field of conservation behavior. In this presentation, we summarize a comprehensive review of the published literature, and we offer interpretations of (I) the manner in which animals are known to interact and respond behaviorally with plastics, (II) the extent of behavioral approaches used to study those interactions, (III) the gaps in the taxonomic representation of both animals and types of plastics, and (IV) the direction for future studies to understand the fitness costs and benefits of plastic use.
Session: Poster Session 2
Infrared thermography in animal personality
Maria Vittoria Mazzamuto1,2, Marina Morandini3, William Lampman3, Luc A Wauters1, Damiano Preatoni1, John Koprowski2, Adriano Martinoli1
1UAGRA, Dipartimento di Scienze Teoriche e Applicate, Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Varese, Italy, 2Haub School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, USA, 3School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA

Acute stress in mammals triggers the activation of the Sympathetic-Adreno-Medullar system that causes a rapid drop in peripheral skin temperature and stress-induced thermogenesis. Behavioral responses to sudden stress can vary between individuals in a population in relation to their personality. We evaluated the link between personality traits and stress response in terms of body temperature variation. The squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus was selected as target species for this study. Squirrels were captured and photographed with an infrared camera. The capture event and the operator's approaching the trap represent the stressful event. Each individual's personality was tested with the arena test. We recorded 3 personality traits, 2 linked to an exploratory behavior and 1 social. Despite this, we found no relationship between animal personality and the temperatures of the different parts of the squirrel body. Body surface temperatures were mostly predicted from the local climate and not the body's core temperature, suggesting that body surface temperatures tell us more about a squirrel's environment and less about the thermal state of its core in that environment.
Session: Virtual Talks
Binaural hearing across rodent species
Elizabeth McCullagh, Luberson Joseph, Emily Margaret New
Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA

The ability to find where a sound is coming from in the environment is a critical behavior that enables foraging, avoidance of predators, engaging in social behavior, and other vital tasks for survival. Our work suggests that there are many factors that influence binaural hearing ability in mammals. Comparisons of anatomical markers in brainstem nuclei and auditory brainstem physiological responses were compared across species with variability in social structure, genetics, activity, size, and habitat. Of the factors explored, social structure seems to have the greatest impact on binaural hearing ability within the central nervous system of rodents impacting amplitude of physiological responses. In addition, there is considerable variability in size of areas of the brain important for binaural hearing across species. Lastly, anatomical features such as pinna size vary considerably both within and between species and likely contribute significantly to binaural hearing ability. Binaural hearing is a critical neural computation that exists across mammals (and other species) and is influenced by many factors that ultimately determine an animal's hearing sensitivity.
Session: Message in a bottle: Communication
Infanticide and inbreeding: tradeoffs in female mate choice in the face of allied sexual coercion
Molly H.F. McEntee1, Vivienne Foroughirad1, Ewa Krzyszczyk2, Alexis L. Levengood3, Eric M. Patterson4, Megan M. Wallen5, Céline Frѐre6, Janet Mann1
1Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia, USA, 2Bangor University, Bangor, Wales, 3University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, Australia, 4National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA, 5National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington, USA, 6University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

In sexually coercive mating systems, males use aggression to induce females to mate. The degree to which coercive strategies prevent female mate choice, however, is debated. Male Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) form long-term alliances that harass and mate guard females. Females invest substantially in each offspring; gestation lasts one year and lactation lasts three to eight years. Consequently, females could be under strong selection pressure to maximize the genetic fitness of each offspring via mate choice. We integrate 35+ years of behavioral and genetic data on Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay, Australia, to investigate the role of female mate choice within a coercive mating system. Results from a GLM (N = 70 paternities) suggest that male age, home range overlap, and previous social association, but not relatedness to the female impact the likelihood of paternity. Middle-aged (age 20 - 35) males who are local to and socially associated with a female are more likely to sire her offspring. While females plausibly benefit by mating with local, socially associated males to reduce infanticide risk, this could also increase the risk inbreeding.
Session: Allee Symposium
Effects of the Light Environment on Courtship Displays in Multimodal Signalling Wolf Spiders
Rowan H McGinley1,2, James Starrett3, Jason E Bond3, Eileen A Hebets2
1Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, USA, 2University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA, 3University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA

Light availability is highly variable, yet predictable, over various timescales and plays an important role in the evolution of visual signals. Courtship displays of the wolf spider genus Schizocosa always involve the use of substrate-borne vibrations, however, visual displays vary substantially among species. We tested the function of visual courtship signaling across distinct light environments in 4 Schizocosa species that vary in their degree of ornamentation and dynamic visual signals. We ran mating and courtship trials at 3 light intensities and tested the hypothesis that ornamentation interacts with light environment. We also examined each species' circadian activity patterns. The effects of the light environment on courtship and mating varied between species as did circadian activity patterns. Our results suggest that femur pigmentation may have evolved for diurnal signaling, whereas tibial brushes may function to increase signal efficacy under dim light. Additionally, we found evidence for light-dependent changes in selection on male traits, illustrating that short-term changes in light intensity have the potential for strong effects on the dynamics of sexual selection.
Session: Growing Smart: Development and Cognition
Exposure to artificial light at night interacts with social conditions to affect egg investment in quail
Kevin McGraw
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

Exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) in built environments can alter both survival and reproduction in animals, but comparatively less is known about effects on specific reproductive investments, such as in egg quantity versus quality. We conducted an overnight light-exposure manipulation in king quail (Excalfactoria chinensis) to examine effects of ALAN on various components of egg investment - egg quantity, egg mass, and concentrations of carotenoid pigments (which can boost offspring growth and health) in yolk. Birds of this social species also were co-housed with either a male or female, which permitted us to examine consequences of cagemate sex on egg traits. We found that ALAN treatment and cagemate sex interacted to significantly affect egg quantity; ALAN-treated females laid more eggs when housed with males than with females, but control females laid more eggs when housed with females. Cagemate sex and ALAN treatment also significantly affected egg size as well as yolk carotenoid concentrations in first-laid eggs, such that females housed with males laid smaller, more carotenoid-rich eggs and that ALAN-treated females laid smaller, carotenoid-deplete eggs.  
Session: Virtual Talks
Provisioning Behaviour in Peregrine Falcons  (Falco peregrinus) across years 
Rebekah A McKinnon1,2, Kevin Hawkshaw1,2, Erik Hedlin1, Shinichi Nakagawa3, Kimberley J Mathot1,4
1University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2Nunavut Wildlife Cooperative Research Unit , Rankin Inlet, Nunavut, Canada, 3University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia, 4Canada Research Chair in Integrative Ecology, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Here, we present the results from a 7-year study documenting provisioning visits by 146 pairs of Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) to evaluate how year-specific conditions shape provisioning decisions. Increasing brood demand generally results in increased provisioning effort by parents. As such, we expected to find reduced inter-visit intervals (IVIs) with increasing nestling age. Further, we predicted that in years where parents already had low IVIs, they would have little scope to further reduce IVIs with increasing brood demand and would instead adopt variance-prone provisioning behaviour. Our results partially support these predictions. Parents decreased IVI with increasing demand across all years, and in years where IVIs were lower on average, parents also exhibited shallower provisioning responses. However, statistical power to assess year-specific variance was low, limiting our scope for inference. These results aptly summarise the problem faced by researchers analysing heterogeneous residual variance. While an important biological mechanism, analysis of heterogeneous variance requires large datasets typically challenging to acquire in observational studies.  
Session: Virtual Talks
Effects of real-time social feedback on male song learning in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)
Celia R. McLean1, Claire Jones1, Samantha Carouso-Peck2, Michael H. Goldstein1
1Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA, 2Grassland Bird Trust, Schuylerville, NY, USA

Male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) undergo vocal development in dynamic social environments in which juveniles are guided toward mature song by contingent social feedback from their mothers. The feedback consists of long (fluff-ups; 0.71-0.94s) or short (wingstrokes; 0.01s) duration behaviors. Contingent playback of these signals on plastic song results in opposite effects on tutor song similarity. Here we investigated the behavioral mechanisms used by juvenile zebra finches to integrate social feedback with song production. We predicted that the brief duration of wingstrokes may serve to drive variation at the syllable level. Eight males were provided with video playback of a wingstroke, contingent on song, during sensorimotor development (40-60 days posthatch). Throughout the sensorimotor period we compared acoustic changes and repetition rate pre- and post-playback of syllables that received wingstrokes as compared to syllables that did not. Preliminary analyses indicate that males are most sensitive to social feedback at 50 dph. Findings will reveal the real-time acoustic adjustments a male songbird makes to his vocal production that, cumulatively, shape his mature song.
Session: Growing Smart: Development and Cognition
The Animal Behavior Podcast: A Resource for Your Classroom
Emily McLean
Oxford College of Emory University, Oxford, GA, USA

The Animal Behavior Podcast is sponsored by the Animal Behavior Society and hosted by Matthew Zipple and Amy Strauss.  The podcast website includes lesson plans and classroom activity guides for introductory courses in Animal Behavior, Behavioral Ecology and General Biology.  Here, we highlight the resources available for instructors and offer some examples of how they may be used to meet course learning objectives.
Session: Poster Session 1
Within-population laying hour in Eastern Bluebirds is related to maternal age and condition  
Susan B. McRae
East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA

Passerines typically lay their eggs shortly after sunrise, but many thrushes and their relatives lay later in the morning. We determined laying times in a resident, color-banded population of Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis) where individuals rarely bred for more than three years. Within-population variation in laying hour was significantly correlated with maternal condition and age. Laying times were determined through direct observation or video of females entering and leaving nest boxes inspected before and after for the presence of a new egg. Laying times were estimated from the midpoints of the laying intervals. The overall mean was 0850 h (Eastern Daylight Time; range = 0732 to 1118 h). Laying times varied among females but were consistent within clutch. For the first time, we present evidence that females in better condition, those laying larger clutches, and two-year-old females (middle-age for breeders in this population) laid significantly earlier in the day. Mean laying time was not correlated with either sunrise or sunset. Thus, bluebirds did not use the onset of daylight as a cue, but laying time was significantly positively related to daylength.  
Session: Bringing Up Baby: Parental Behavior
Variance-sensitivity across the lifecycle of a bumble bee forager
Shannon R McWaters, Anna R Dornhaus
University Of Arizona , Tucson, AZ, USA

Foraging is a crucial but energetically expensive activity and foragers must choose between multiple resource options that can vary in mean expected reward. However, rewards with the same mean gain are not always equally preferable as they can differ in variance. Variation-sensitive foragers show preferences for either more consistent (variance-averse) or variable (variance-prone) options. Energetic needs have been shown to play a large role where foragers are typically variance-averse unless they are below the daily energy requirement for survival. Bumble bee foragers have been observed to show both variance-prone and variance-averse foraging behaviors depending on current colony food stores. However, it isn't clear if workers continuously evaluate the colony needs or if stages of the life cycle produce foragers with a predisposition to be variance-prone or averse. These stages may put different pressures on foraging performance due to how that energy translates to fitness. Here, we test variance sensitivity of bumble bees over the span of the colony's life. This study will allow us to make further insights into how eusocial species have evolved to evaluate foraging tradeoffs.  
Session: Feed Me, Seymour: Foraging Behavior
Environmental Correlates of the Setae Coloration of the Woolly Bear (Pyrrharctia isabella) Caterpillar
Haider Mehdi1, Christine Urbanowicz2, Beth A. Reinke1
1Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2Independent Researcher, Washington DC, Virginia , USA

Melanin-based color expression in insects has been demonstrated to vary by temperature. The Woolly Bear (Pyrrharctia isabella) caterpillar is widespread across North America where it is exposed to a variety of temperature conditions. The Woolly Bear has a distinctive setae color pattern with a central orange band between two black bands. The length of the central band has been anecdotally attributed with predicting upcoming winter severity. In this study, we aimed to identify if there is a relationship between the Woolly Bear's setae color expression and environmental variables. We acquired research-grade photos and metadata of individual Woolly Bears distributed across the contiguous United States from 2010 to 2019. We measured the relative length of the orange band with digital image analysis and collected monthly mean temperature data for the same time frame. Testing the Woolly Bear's reliability as an indicator of upcoming winter severity provides scientific rigor for an attribution that is currently strictly anecdotal. Also, identifying plausible correlates can open the door to experimental work identifying the function of setae color variation in Woolly Bears.
Session: Poster Session 1
The Neotropical fruit-eating treefrog also feed on flowers and nectar
Thaynara Mendes1, Carlos Henrique Nogueira2, Ubiratã Souza3, Luís Felipe Todelo1
1Laboratório de História Natural de Anfíbios Brasileiros (LaHNAB), Departamento de Biologia Animal, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 2Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, 3Laboratório de Estudos Herpetológicos e Paleoherpetológicos (LEHP), Departamento de Biologia Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

Although many vertebrates act in the dispersal and pollination of plants, quite few cases are reported involving ectothermic tetrapods, i.e., amphibians and reptiles. The consumption of plant parts by frogs is even more anecdotal, accidental in most cases. The most emblematic example is Xenohyla truncata, a treefrog that has been observed eating and dispersing three species of fruits in Brazil. Adding to its already unique omnivorous diet, we hereby describe the foraging behavior of X. truncata, which also includes flower nectar and fruit feeding of the Louro-Branco, Cordia taguahyensis (Boraginaceae), and flower of the Bearded Iris, Iris x germanica (Iridaceae). Thus, these observations expand the number of fruit species that X. truncata feeds on and we report the first observation of flower and nectar consumption in amphibians. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that beyond seed disperser that this treefrog could be a flower pollinator.
Session: Feed Me, Seymour: Foraging Behavior
Do snakes use the vibrations produced by calling frogs to locate prey?
Julianna M. Mendez1, Holly A. Wentworth1, Karen M. Warkentin2, Michael S. Caldwell1
1Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, PA, USA, 2Boston University, Boston, MA, USA

Foraging predators often exploit the intraspecific signals used by their prey, which can have major consequences for signal evolution. Such eavesdropping phenomena are well described for the airborne sound components of frog calls. Calling frogs, however, also simultaneously excite substrate vibrations which can serve as important call components in the contexts of mate-choice and aggression. The possibility that snakes, a major predator at breeding aggregations, use vibrations produced by calling frogs to locate those prey has not been previously tested. Here, we report on playback trials, where we tested whether foraging arboreal snakes can use vibrations produced by calling hourglass treefrogs, Dendropsophus ebraccatus, to locate those prey. Despite clear physiological documentation of the capacity of snakes to detect substrate vibrations, investigations into how these animals use such sensitivities are exceedingly rare. Moreover, examinations of eavesdropping behavior mediated by substrate vibrations are similarly rare in vertebrate predators and prey. We discuss our results in light of the foraging strategies of snake predators and the evolution of sexual signals in anurans.
Session: Poster Session 1
The use of sounds in ecology and evolution of neotropical anurans
Angela M Mendoza-Henao
Humboldt Institute, Villa de Leuva, Boyaca, Columbia

Acoustics signals are a behavior phenotype deeply related to the individual fitness, useful in multiple field studies in ecology and evolution. The Neotropical anurofauna provides an excellent laboratory to study all these processes. Here, I will address some of these topics. The advertisement calls are a useful source of information for species recognition and differentiation of cryptic species, and are a reliable evidence of the presence of anurans in a site. It allows the study of pattern activities and spatio-temporal distributions, when passive recorders are used in the field. On the other hand, given that acoustic space is a resource shared in biotic communities, studies on how this resource is partitioned (niche partition), considering the constrictions imposed by the abiotic environment (acoustic adaptation), has given rise to interesting results. Finally, the study of sounds beyond advertisement calls, like those emitted by females or those associated with predation events, provide a more complete framework of the behavior of anurans. All these approaches are examples of how amphibian sounds can provide insights about the processes behind this behavioral trait of species.
Session: Bioacoustics in Tropical Forests
Relationship between frequency and amplitude in bird vocalizations
Joao C. T. Menezes, Jeffrey Podos
University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA

Sounds are the main channel of long-range communication in birds. In general, individuals may be expected to benefit from vocalizing at higher amplitudes because amplitude increases a sound's range and therefore the potential number of intended receivers. Another way to maximize a sound's range is to vocalize at lower frequencies, which are less susceptible to heat losses. However, biophysical models of avian sound production predict that amplitude and frequency should be positively coupled, which could limit birds' vocal spatial range. Here, we quantified relationships between vocal amplitude and frequency of multiple species to test whether their association is negative (as predicted if birds managed to maximize sound range) or positive (as predicted by biophysical constraints). For most species, we found frequency to correlate positively with amplitude, indicating an overarching role for biophysical constraints on frequency-by-amplitude relationships. This trade-off may shape communication systems by delimiting optimal combinations of amplitude and frequency that maximize a vocalization's range.
Session: All's Fair in Love and War: Sexual selection and Sexual Conflict
Cognitive control of song production by humpback whales
Eduardo Mercado, Mariam Ashour, Samantha Mcallister
University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, New York, USA

Past analyses of humpback whale song have emphasized yearly variations in structural features made collectively by singers within a population with little attention given to the ways that individual singers vary consecutive songs. As a result, many researchers describe singing by humpbacks as a process in which singers produce sequences of repeating sound patterns. Here, we show that such characterizations misrepresent the degree to which humpback whales flexibly and dynamically control the production of sounds and sound patterns within song sessions. Singers recorded off the coast of Hawaii continuously morphed units along multiple acoustic dimensions, with the degree of morphing varying across parallel streams of units. Individual singers also produced multiple phrase variants (structurally similar, but acoustically distinctive sequences) within song sessions. The precision with which singers maintained some acoustic properties of phrases and morphing trajectories while flexibly changing others suggests that singing humpback whales actively select and adjust acoustic elements of their songs in real-time rather than simply repeating stereotyped sound patterns within song sessions.
Session: Virtual Talks
How do nutrients constrain sensory system development and function? A review.
Justin W. Merry
Saint Francis University, Loretto, PA, USA

Sensory structures are the means by which animals gather information, and therefore shape how animals behaviorally respond to their environments. Physiological studies have documented significant energy costs associated with the operation of large sensory structures. Compound eyes contain substantial nervous tissue, which has metabolic rate ~10x that of the average tissue. Blowfly retinas alone, for example, account for an estimated 8% of resting oxygen consumption. Nevertheless, there is a wide-ranging literature indicating that growth rates in animals are not constrained by energy, but instead by other nutrients rich in nitrogen or, especially, phosphorus. Therefore, the salience of high energy costs as a limiting factor may be questionable, at least from a developmental perspective. That said, there is also evidence that localized constraints can occur within body regions, and which raises the possibility that energetic constraints could still be locally important even if overall growth rates are energy-independent. In this review poster, I provide a summary of literature on these viewpoints, and discuss opportunities for further investigation.
Session: Poster Session 2
An Exploration of the Contextual Interference Effect on Training Retention in Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)
Maddie G. Messina1, Gal Ziv2, Sarah-Elizabeth Byosiere1
1Hunter College, CUNY, New York, NY, USA, 2The Academic College at Wingate, Netanya, Israel

This study sought to enhance current dog training practices by applying a human motor skill learning theory, the contextual interference (CI) effect, to a trick-training paradigm with companion dogs. In humans, research shows practicing skills in random order, as compared to blocked order, improves learning of those skills. To test this, we trained 17 dogs to perform three skills of varying complexity in a blocked format (low CI) and a random format (high CI). One day later, dogs returned for a retention test. Throughout acquisition and retention, we scored each trick and measured latency and disengagement. We also measured whether dogs required one or two tries to perform a behavior. We found no significant differences between dogs who practiced three tricks in random or in blocked order during training and retention. The type of training dogs received also did not significantly impact the dogs' disengagement scores. Though no evidence of CI was found, this study provides a framework for future investigation into the CI effect on dogs with potential implications for increasing retention of trained skills. Keywords: dogs, contextual interference, learning, training, companion dogs
Session: Virtual Talks
Convergent Body Size and Acoustic Character Displacement in Syntopic Cricket Frogs (genus Acris)
Jonathan Micancin1,2, Trey LaPine1
1Young Harris College, Young Harris, GA, USA, 2Blackburn College, Carlinville, IL, USA

Reproductive character displacement was proposed to explain behavioral variation in the calls of cricket frogs (genus Acris), but then climatic effects on body size and other factors were found to be more significant. We conducted a survey of male variation in body size and dominant frequency in sympatric A. crepitans and A. gryllus at 32 breeding wetlands in a single river basin. Allotopic A. crepitans males were larger than syntopic A. crepitans or A. gryllus males and therefore overlapped A. gryllus in dominant frequencies. Syntopic A. crepitans were similar in body size to syntopic A. gryllus, and with a stronger relationship between body size and call characteristics in A. crepitans, the frequencies used by syntopic A. crepitans were higher than those of syntopic A. gryllus. This suggests that smaller body size of A. crepitans at syntopic wetlands can reduce acoustic overlap or gene flow with A. gryllus. However, it is still unknown whether the body size of A. crepitans converged with A. gryllus due to the presence of the sibling species or other ecological constraints of the shared wetlands. Still, this indicates an unusual mechanism maintaining diversity in sibling anurans.
Session: Chirps, Croaks and more! Acoustic Communication
Physiological mechanisms of benefits of pair experience in Cassin's auklet under two oceanic regimes
Amy Miles1, Chris Tyson2, Mike Johns3, Josh Hull1
1University of California Davis, Davis, California, USA, 2Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands, 3Point Blue Conservation Science, Petaluma, California, USA

The increase in reproductive success that comes with experience breeding with a mate is hypothesized to be a main evolutionary driver for monogamy as a viable breeding strategy. While this correlation has been well established, the mechanisms are relatively unknown. We followed nest attendance and measured stress hormones in Cassin's auklet pairs with varying levels of pair experience during two years. Year one of the study was a poor year, characterized by widespread reproductive failure, while year two was a good year in which most pairs fledged chicks. Corticosterone, the main avian stress hormone, was elevated in males who had no previous experience with their mate during year one compared to females, males who had experience with their mates, and all groups in year two. This result suggests that not only is there an important effect of pair level reproductive experience on the physiological state of individuals, but that this effect is sex-specific and associated with environmental conditions.
Session: No pain, no mate: Sexual Selection and Alternative Tactics
Response to MHC-based Olfactory Cues in a Mate Choice Context in Two Species of Darter
Kara M. Million1, Melissa Proffitt2, Sierra Reese3
1University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, USA, 2University of Tennessee Knoxville, Knoxville, TN, USA, 3University of California Davis, Davis, CA, USA

Mate choice is hypothesized to play an important role in maintaining high diversity at MHC genes in vertebrates, specifically by disassortative mate choice for dissimilar MHC genotypes. However, numerous studies across species have yielded mixed support for this hypothesis. Our goal in this study was to investigate the response to MHC-based olfactory stimuli in two species of darter (genus Etheostoma): the fantail darter (E. flabellare) and the rainbow darter (E. caeruleum). In dichotomous mate choice trials, we presented females of both species with the scents of conspecific males with MHC class IIb genotypes that were either similar or dissimilar to that of the focal female. We used the proportion of time each female spent with each male to evaluate strength and direction of preferences in both species. Female fantail darters demonstrated a strong preference for the scent of males with similar MHC genotypes. Rainbow darter females showed no preference either for the scent of males with similar or dissimilar genotypes. Our findings suggest that species with different reproductive behaviors may differ in their MHC-based preferences in a mate choice context.
Session: Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus, or Is It the Opposite? Sexual conflict
Behavioral insights into extreme morphology: the imaginal molt in a treehopper (Hemiptera: Membracidae)
Ximena Miranda
Escuela de Biologia, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, San Jose, Costa Rica

The first thoracic sclerite (pronotum) has expanded, with elaborate three-dimensional shapes that include spines, hairy bulbs, semi-spheres, and spiky umbrellas in treehoppers. These extreme shapes have caught the attention of researchers for decades, but the developmental mechanisms by which they are produced are still largely unknown. The imaginal molting behavior of Ennya chrysura and Polyglypta costata was filmed and studied in detail to understand how pronotal expansion occurs. The results indicate that both behavior and hydraulic expansion are involved, as suggested by the timing and coordination of muscle contractions simultaneous with wing and pronotal extension. Future detailed observations of imaginal molting behavior will hopefully illuminate the mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity in treehopper evolution.  
Session: Change for Change's Sake: Behavioral Plasticity
Contributions to the Latin American scientific culture.
Ximena Miranda
Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, San José, Costa Rica

Mary Jane West-Eberhard and William Eberhard contributed to developing the scientific culture in Costa Rica, Panamá, Colombia, and other Latin American countries. For decades, they have been extremely generous in sharing their passion for understanding organisms, their profound evolutionary perspective, and their values towards science as part of a meaningful and creative life. The possibility of studying live animals in their environments as one of the greatest strengths of our countries is something they have helped many of us appreciate. They have constantly reminded us of the importance of doing research based on patient and thoughtful observations of organisms that live among us. Becoming mentors and friends as part of the local collaboration networks, they have nurtured the pursuit and the continuous crafting of scientific careers, including original, idiosyncratic formulas. Most importantly, their beautiful studies of neotropical wasps, spiders, flies, treehoppers, and other animals model ingenious use of simple resources and the advantage of having a powerful evolutionary lense. There is no doubt that they will be guides and inspiration for many more generations. 
Session: Detailed Observations of Behavior for Generating Questions and Answering Them – A tribute to William Eberhard and Mary Jane West-Eberhard.
Brain and Behavioral Characteristics at the Onset of Status Attainment in Cichlids
Robert B. Mobley, Ian Hill, Karen P. Maruska
Lousiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA

Neuroplasticity is the modification of neuron morphology caused by various stimuli to adapt to situational changes. Although social interaction within a dominance hierarchy is a major modifier of neural circuitry, little is known about how neuronal morphology relates to attaining an initial position within the hierarchy. We examine this relationship in juvenile fish of the cichlid Astatotilapia burtoni, a species in which males exist in a dominance hierarchy. Once a single dominant male was established within a community, we quantified behaviors and performed Golgi-Cox staining to examine neuron morphology of dominant and subordinate fish. Dominant males showed more physical aggression while subordinates engaged in more non-physical aggression and submissive behaviors. Dominant males also had longer cell processes throughout the brain, and larger cells with more branching in the telencephalon. These data suggest increased synaptic connections may facilitate the behaviors and physiology required for attainment of dominance. This work may lead to better understanding of how neuroplasticity is related to an individual's social rank in hierarchical societies across vertebrates.
Session: Virtual Posters
Bird detection in response to pruning, harvesting, and application of agrochemicals on coffee farms.  
Ingrid Molina-Mora1, Viviana Ruiz-Gutierrez2, Luis Sandoval1, Alejandro Quesada1
1Laboratorio de Ecología Urbana y Comunicación Animal, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica, Montes de Oca, San José, Costa Rica, 2Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA

Agricultural landscapes in the tropics are dominated by monocultures that require pest management, mineral inputs, specific pruning, and harvesting techniques to maintain production. Coffee farms are used as transit, foraging, or nesting sites by birds, and agricultural practices could have an impact on bird behavior over time. We installed recorders in 40 coffee farms in Costa Rica and programmed to record continuously every morning, for 40 days in the dry and rainy seasons. We detected the occurrence of six species of birds between 5:30-6:30h before and after harvest, pruning, and agrochemical application. Our results showed that the species detection decreased after the application of agrochemicals. These products have intense odors and some of them kill the insects that are potential prey for insectivorous birds such as B. delatrii and P. rutilus. The instruments used for their application are very loud and may scare birds away from plantations or diminish their vocalizations. This study is pioneer in the area of ​​agricultural management evaluation since the effect of agricultural production, on avian behavior, is not usually evaluated. 
Session: Their Best Interests in Mind: Conservation and Behavior
Context Impacts Human Perception of Emotions in Dogs
Holly G. Molinaro, Clive D. L. Wynne
Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA

We examined the impact of context on people's perception of dog emotions. A dog was filmed in emotionally valent situations: 3 positive (praise, play, treat) and 3 negative (cat, novel object, reprimand). Videos with and without background were presented in an online survey (N = 382). Videos without background were shown first. Participants rated valence and arousal of the dog in each video from 1-10. Valence responses differed depending whether context was present or not (F1,381 = 6.60, p < .01), and were higher to positive situations (F1,381 = 286.50, p < .01). The interaction was significant (F1,381 = 497.32, p < .01): Valence was higher to positive videos with background but higher to negative videos without. Arousal did not differ based on context, but was higher in positive situations (F1,380  = 135.07, p < .01). The interaction was significant (F1,380 = 150.11, p < .01): Arousal was higher in positive videos with background, but lower in negative videos without. These findings showed that people have great difficulty interpreting dogs' emotions without contextual information. These findings are extremely impactful for human-animal interactions.
Session: Virtual Posters
Novel Ultrasonic Vocalization Subtypes in Pair-Bonded California Mice (Peromyscus californicus)
Patrick Monari, Candice Malone, Emma Hammond, Yiru Chen, Catherine Marler
University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA

California mice are one of few monogamous mammal species. Bonded females and males defend territory, acquire resources, and care for young. The ability to effectively coordinate behavior as a dyad is an important emergent property involving vocal communication. California mice produce a rich repertoire of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) crucial for joint territorial defense, affiliation, and offspring care. While the known functions of several USV types are materializing, conventional USV categories are broadly defined and contain substantial feature variability, suggesting the possibility of call subtypes. To uncover nuance within USV categories, we trained a convolutional neural network on California mouse USVs and identified novel USV subtypes based on tonal contour features. To investigate the functional roles of these subtypes, we administered chronic intranasal oxytocin to female and male mice prior to pairing. Machine learning revealed that oxytocin increased the frequency of transition between call subtypes during courtship and pair bond development. Our results suggest that oxytocin has long-term impacts on vocal communication and underscore the complexity of USVs.
Session: Virtual Posters
Northern Olingo as recurrent visitor of the world's only epiphytic gymnosperm: Zamia pseudoparasitica
Claudio Manuel Monteza-Moreno1, 2, 3, 4, Lilisbeth Rodriguez-Castro3, Pedro Castillo-Caballero3, Edgar Toribio3
1Department for the Ecology of Animal Societies, Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior, Konstanz, Germany, 2International Max Planck Research School for Quantitative Behavior, Ecology and Evolution, Radolfzell, Germany, 3Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama, Panama, 4Estación Científica COIBA-AIP, Panama, Panama

Zamia pseudoparasitica is an endemic epiphytic gymnosperm from the mountains of Western Panama and little is known about the ecology of this unusual cycad. We provide the first report of the Northern olingo (Bassaricyon gabbii) as potential seed disperser of Z. pseudoparasitica. Three arboreal camera traps collected data between late-October 2019 and March 2020 at three sites, along the Talamanca Cordillera in Western Panama. We recorded at least seven mammal species visiting this epiphytic cycad. However, the Northern olingo (Bassaricyon gabbii) was the only species that visited individuals of Z. pseudoparasitica repeatedly, both while cones were closed and after they had opened. We estimated the time-varying intensity of the visits throughout our sampling and used mixed models to compare the length of visits when cones were closed versus when they were open. Both duration and time-varying intensity of visits increased after cones had opened. Camera trap images documented Northern olingo removing and carrying away seeds. Our results suggest that the Northern olingo might be acting as a seed dispersal agent for this rare epiphytic gymnosperm.
Session: Come what may: Ecological Effects
Understanding the ecological impact of ocular disease in animals
Bret Moore
University of Florida at Gainesville, Gainsville, Florida, USA

Veterinary ophthalmology was founded on the interest of comparative anatomists, physiologists, and visual ecologists. With the advancement of medicine and the study of ophthalmic disease, clinical medicine deviated from the critical evaluation of first the animal, their visual system, and finally how an animal uses that system to interact visually with their environment. Understanding the ecological consequence of a clinical patient's ophthalmic disease is essential to understanding species differences in treatment and prognosis, as well as the welfare and potentially release of free-living individuals. Considering the ecological consequences of ophthalmic disease is also important from a conservation and behavioral ecology perspective. This lecture discusses potential opportunities to bridge the gap between clinical ophthalmology and behavioral ecology and suggests ways to better study the ecological impact of ophthalmic disease.
Session: Visual Ecology and Behavior: future research challenges and opportunities
Impacts of Noise on the Response to Territorial Intruders in Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus)  
Jennifer L. Moore, Adrienne N. Thornton, Sean P. Roach
University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB, Canada

The obstacle that anthropogenic noise presents to songbird acoustic communication is well understood from the signaller perspective, but little is known about how noise impacts receivers. This study aims to quantify aggressive behavior of Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus) during simulated territory intrusion in various noise conditions. Playback sessions of noise and conspecific song will occur in territories along a gradient of 'urbanness', providing a unique understanding of the impact of noise with varying durations. It is hypothesized that birds will respond with greater aggression to song played back with noise playback as evidence shows that when the acoustic channel is inhibited, birds will more readily escalate to physical aggression. In addition, following the urban anger hypothesis, song playback is expected to elicit more aggression in birds on noisier territories. Soft song is the most reliable aggressive signal but since it is also the most susceptible to masking, it is expected to be less used in noisier conditions, aligning with the Lombard effect. The study results will provide a more complete picture of the implications of city noise on songbird territory defense.
Session: Virtual Posters
Testing for an Association Between Foraging Behavior and Social Rank in Parakeet Groups
Virginia D Moore, Nickolas P Lormand, Claire L O'Connell, Annemarie van der Marel, Elizabeth A Hobson
University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA

Dominance hierarchy and rank often influence the behavior of individuals in social groups, but rank can also change over time. It has been difficult to determine how and when individuals update their perceptions of rank. If certain behaviors are associated with social rank, they could be used to detect how and when animals respond to rank changes. If an individual changes its behavior after changing social rank, this could be evidence that an individual is aware of its own rank, that it has recognized a rank change, and that it has altered its behavior accordingly. We analyzed feeder visit behavior to test for associations with social rank in captive monk parakeets. We tested (1) whether rank predicted which birds were first to visit feeders and (2) whether changes to rank altered this foraging behavior. This simple behavioral assay can provide novel insight into the effects of rank. The resulting information could be used to better detect when individuals update their perceptions of their own ranks and the timescale on which behavioral interactions lead to shifts in dominance rank.
Session: Poster Session 2
Mechanisms underlying host recognition and parasitic manipulation of social wasps
Floria Mora-Kepfer Uy1, Federico Sánchez-Vargas21, Maggie Kane1, Christopher Jernigan2, Rafael Rafael Carvalho da Silva121,3
1University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA, 2Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA, 3Universidade de São Paulo, Riberão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil

While behavioral control of the host is well-understood in many host-parasite systems, we still know little about the mechanisms underlying parasitic manipulation. Here, we take advantage of Polistes fuscatus wasps infected by the strepsipteran Xenos peckii. First, we tested if recognition and infection of host larvae was due to direct manipulation of the wasp host by gravid female parasites, and/or if parasite larvae chose their host. Our results show that female parasites hijacked visual and olfactory recognition of wasp hosts to infect nests. However, parasite larvae equally infected P. fuscatus larvae or the non-target host, P. dominula larvae. Second, we explored molecular mechanisms that induce castration, longevity, diapause and abnormal behavior. We compared gene expression between infected female wasp workers who were behaviorally and physiologically manipulated and infected male wasps who are not manipulated. Finally, we used an immunohistochemistry approach to visualize differences between the brains of infected and uninfected wasps. Together, our results provide novel insights to understand the mechanisms underlying parasitic manipulation of social hosts.
Session: Bridging Brain and Behavior in the Americas
Off the Wing: Patterns and Preferences of Wing Folding in Wild American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos)
Jazlyn Morales, Sheila R Moore, Anne B Clark
Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, USA

Bird flight itself is well studied, but wing-related behaviors and postures outside of flight are not. Wing folding describes the overlap of a bird's wing tips in a resting state. The tips may be parallel (unfolded), overlapping left over right (L/R), or right over left (R/L). American crows may overtly "wing flick" and adjust the wing tips on landing or approaching something, but why they position them as L/R or R/L is unknown. Hypotheses include a) readying a leading wing for flight in one direction or b) having a habitual, individual position preference. We assessed wing fold patterns on video recordings of 11 recognizable crows from 4 families observed before-while interacting with food or objects-and as they take flight. Preliminary results show wing flicks always resulted in a change in wing fold direction, suggesting a non-communicative function of wing flicking. An R/L fold and takeoff to the left was by far the most common relationship between wing fold and takeoff direction. Our results will address both fold-flight patterns and individual wing-fold preferences.
Session: Virtual Posters
Effect of the temperature on the performance of a lizard in two different cognitive tasks
Ingrid Carolina Morales-Méndez1, Maria de Lourdes Ruiz-Gómez1, Petra Sánchez-Nava1, Carlos Alejandro Rangel-Patiño2
1Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca, México, Mexico, 2Tecnológico de Estudios Superiores De Huixquilucan, Huixquilucan, México, Mexico

Cognitive functions can be affected by abiotic factors like temperature or oxygen availability. The impact of temperature on animals is known as thermic stress, and it has variable effects on fishes and humans depending on the complexity of the task performed. In lizards, there's little information, but we know that incubation temperature affects learning ability, the size and density of neurons, personality, and survival rates. Therefore, we aimed to fill this gap by examining the effect of 3 temperatures on the cognitive performance of the lizard Aspidoscelis costatus costatus in 2 tasks of different complexity. We collected 34 lizards (SVL 76.24 ± 7.16) and assigned them to three temperature treatments, high (40-42°C, n=11), optimal (36-38°C, n=11) and low (27-29°C, n=12). Each individual had to complete the two tasks 15 times. The simple task consisted of getting across a bare arena to retrieve food while in the complex task they had to navigate between transparent barriers to gain access to food. The results are discussed in light of the implications of temperature in the performance of lizards under simple and complex tasks and on the significance for other taxa.
Session: Puzzling Animals: Learning and Cognition
LARVAL SALMON LICE (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) EXHIBIT BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES TO CONSPECIFIC CUES
Robert Morefield1,2, Heather Hamlin1,2
1University of Maine, Orono, ME, USA, 2Aquaculture Research Institute, Orono, ME, USA

In the larval stage of the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, the free living copepodid must locate and settle on a salmonid host. Mature lice use chemosensory mechanisms to identify sexually mature mates. After maturing, evidence has shown pre-adult females and adult male sea lice emit sex pheromones while gravid females do not. Typically, sex specific cues are used for reproduction and rarely have they been shown to be utilized by larval conspecifics. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential that cues from pre-adult female and adult male sea lice influence larval behavior. Behavioral bioassays were conducted with copepodids exposed to water conditioned with three stages of conspecific lice (pre-adult female, adult male, and gravid female). Experiments demonstrated that copepodids exposed to water conditioned with pre-adult female or adult male sea lice elicited behaviors characteristic of arrestment, whereas gravid female conditioned water did not. These results may suggest that L. salmonis larvae respond to the cues of lice stages known to produce sex pheromones, and we conjecture that they may serve to aggregate conspecifics and amplify infestations.
Session: You Are (Not) What You Eat: Host-Parasite Interactions
Signaling Geometry and the Evolution of Visual Communication
Nathan I. Morehouse
University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA

Visual communication is inherently spatial as a result of directionality in visual systems and visual signals. For example, most visual systems include regions-of-view with specialized functionality (e.g., fovea), which must be directed to stimuli of interest using eye or head movements. Likewise, many visual signals are only visible from a limited range of angles, a phenomenon particularly pronounced for iridescent or specular displays. Consideration of these spatial aspects of visual signaling is essential for understanding how and why animals move through space over time when they communicate with each other. And yet information on these spatio-temporal dynamics is sparse even for some of the best studied systems. In this talk, I highlight why this aspect of visual signaling is so critical, and provide examples where attention to the spatiality of visual signaling has provide novel insights.
Session: Visual Ecology and Behavior: future research challenges and opportunities
Daily variation and repeatability in advertisement calls of an anuran from the South American temperate forest
Felipe N. Moreno-Gómez1, Gabriel Bidart-Enríquez2, Romina Cossio-Rodriguez2, Matías I. Muñoz3, Maricel Quispe2, Mario Penna2
1Departamento de Biología y Química, Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Católica del Maule, Talca, Región del Maule, Chile, 2Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Región Metropolitana, Chile, 3Department of Ecological Science, VU University, Amsterdam, Netherlands

In several anuran species males vocalize during the reproductive season throughout several days. Studying individual variation in advertisement calls provides insights on their potential evolution under sexual selection. A high repeatability of calls may imply that female choice acts as an effective selective agent when choosing particular males based on their signals. Calls are complex traits having temporal and spectral variables that depend on different attributes, such as energy reserves and body structures, implying higher repeatabilities for spectral relative to temporal variables. We studied under laboratory conditions the variation in calls of Batrachyla taeniata. Males were placed individually in acoustically isolated chambers for eight consecutive days and were stimulated with natural choruses. Calls were analyzed obtaining spectral and temporal variables. Significant effects of temporal block, day of stimulation, and their interaction on call characteristics occurred. Repeatability estimates where significant for both type of measures, having spectral variables higher values. Despite temporal variation, the calls have the potential to evolve under sexual selection.
Session: There's a method to this madness: Signal variability
Do you see what I see? The Observer Effect and its influence on animal behaviour
Dr Kate Mornement1,2
1Pets Behaving Badly, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, 2People & Animals in the Workplace, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

The Observer Effect is the phenomenon whereby the act of looking at something changes it. Whether it be a person, an animal or an atom, the fact that it's being observed influences its behaviour. The effects of observation become even more complicated when we consider that we filter what we see through our own preconceptions, experiences and assumptions - Known as Observer bias. Observer bias occurs when we alter what we see either by only noticing what we expect or by behaving in ways that influence what occurs. So what does this mean for the animals we study or those we live or work with? On the most fundamental level, that of the atomic world, Quantum Physics has unequivocally demonstrated not only the power of observation, but that of our individual perceptions and beliefs, in shaping our reality. This poster examines the potential implications of the Observer Effect on the behaviour of the wild, captive and companion animals we study, work and live with, with a focus on companion animals. Specific recommendations for how applied animal behaviourists can positively influence the beliefs and attitudes of companion animal caregivers and improve animal welfare will be discussed.
Session: Virtual Posters
Physiological cost to behavioral plasticity in the swordtail fish Xiphophorus multilineatus
Molly Morris1, Helen Stec1, Madison Gambil1, Hannah Whitmer1, Keith Tompkins1, Oscar Rios-Cardenas2
1Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA, 2Instituto de Ecología A.C, Xalapa, VC, Mexico

Plasticity in use of mating behaviors can be adaptive when individuals use behaviors that are most successful given changing social context. However, physiological costs to plasticity could lead to its evolutionary loss. We tested the hypothesis that behavioral plasticity is associated with relatively larger brain sizes in the swordtail fish Xiphophorus multilineatus. Males from one of the genetically influenced alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) in this species (sneaker) are behaviorally plastic, while males from the other ART (courter) are behaviorally fixed. The behaviorally plastic males had larger brains and smaller testes for their size. When we compared sneaker males from laboratory mesocosms with no courter males to males from mesocosms with both types of males, we detected a significant reduction in behavioral plasticity and brain size. Finally, the genotype of a sneaker male's dam (courter versus sneaker ART) influenced his propensity to use sneak-chase behavior, suggesting a genetic correlation in use of mating behaviors between the ARTs. Our results support hypotheses for the evolutionary loss of behavioral plasticity due to selection.
Session: Change for Change's Sake: Behavioral Plasticity
Extra, extra, buzz all about it: anther chemical cues signal bees to buzz for pollen.
Abilene R. Mosher1, Thomas Eltz2, Daniel R. Papaj3, Stephen Buchmann3, Avery L. Russell1
1Missouri State University, Springfield, MO, USA, 2University of Bochum, Bochum, Germany, Germany, 3University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ, USA

Plants often provide cues eliciting pollinator behaviors that benefit the plant, but which also may benefit the pollinator. Cues directing pollinators to floral nectar rewards are common and enhance pollination, yet the function of cues associated with pollen rewards is poorly understood. Here we investigated the function and identity of cues eliciting a widespread bee pollen foraging behavior termed floral buzzing. Using crude solvent extracts and gas coupled mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we found chemical cues specifically associated with anthers (the male reproductive flower part), mediated floral buzzing. Extracts volatilized in a time series revealed that the cues eliciting buzzing have low volatility, suggesting they elicit buzzing only at close range. Our results suggest anther cues benefit plants by stimulating bees only when close to the reproductive organs (potentially enhancing pollination), but also benefit bees by eliciting pollen foraging only on anthers. Finally, we discuss the unusual nature of these anther cues, which seem to serve as a private channel signaling anther presence to bees. In ongoing work, we continue to characterize the specific chemistry involved. 
Session: Feed Me, Seymour: Foraging Behavior
Does thermal stress modify genetic programs for providing or receiving care in a subsocial beetle?
Jeanette B Moss1, Christopher B Cunningham2, Elizabeth C McKinney2, Allen J Moore2
1University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA, 2University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA

Parenting evolves to buffer offspring from unpredictable and challenging environments. In the subsocial carrion beetle, Nicrophorus orbicollis, parents maintain care under stressful temperatures despite steep fitness costs. Here, we ask if plasticity of gene expression underpins this behavioral stability or facilitates independent compensation by larvae. To test this, we characterized gene expression of parents and offspring before and during active parenting under benign and stressful temperatures. We found that the main effects of thermal and social condition each shaped patterns of gene expression in females, males, and larvae. In addition, we identified some genes in females that showed significant changes in expression in actively parenting mothers at the benign temperature, but not at the stressful temperature. Our results suggest that neither genetic programs for parenting nor their effects on offspring gene expression are fundamentally different under stressful conditions, and that behavioral stability is associated primarily with the maintenance of existing genetic programs rather than replacement or supplementation.  
Session: Virtual Talks
What drives wild zebrafish towards mixed species shoaling?
Ishani Mukherjee, Anuradha Bhat
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research - Kolkata, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Mixed species groups occur across taxa and there are costs and benefits related to the formation of such groups. Here, using laboratory-based experiments, we decipher the main drivers that determine wild zebrafish (Danio rerio) forming mixed species shoals with flying barbs (Esomus danricus) and whitespots (Aplocheilus panchax). We conducted experiments to assess foraging efficiency on single or mixed species shoals and found that: shoals differing in species composition differed in foraging time. However, within mixed species shoals, each species consumed comparable quantities of food.  Shoal choice experiments were conducted to assess the preferences towards different kinds of shoals and we found that test zebrafish associated with mixed shoals significantly more in the presence of a predator and associated with familiar conspecific over unfamiliar mixed and unfamiliar conspecific shoals. Test fish showed equal preference to shoals varying in the relative abundance of conspecifics. While we reveal the benefits of mixed shoaling in zebrafish, more studies are needed to understand why the other species participate in mixed shoaling and the ultimate causes of mixed shoaling.
Session: Virtual Posters
The Role of Social Immunity in Feral Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) against Parasitic Mites (Varroa destructor).
Brandon Mukogawa, James C. Nieh
University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA

Varroa destructor threatens managed and feral Apis mellifera colonies worldwide. Some studies suggest feral colonies may have increased resistance to V. destructor from increased immunocompetence and frequent swarming that disrupts mite reproductive cycles. Additionally, Africanized colonies have also been shown to demonstrate increased hygienic behavior by removing more dead/infected brood and grooming more intensely, making them potentially more Varroa resistant. This study aims to test whether there are differences in hygienic behavior between feral and managed A. mellifera throughout the year. We wish to understand whether increased hygienic behavior allows feral colonies to survive with Varroa without anti-mite treatments. Interestingly, there are few observed differences between the autogrooming behavior of managed and feral colonies. And similarly, there are no differences in their mite biting behavior. However, there is a common trend of honey bees biting off specific mite legs (forelegs) more than other legs—which may be a strategy to reduce mite infestations. These findings may help us understand how feral A. mellifera colonies combat V. destructor infestations.
Session: You Are (Not) What You Eat: Host-Parasite Interactions
Adjustment of parental care in waterbugs  in response to egg-pad size, egg development and temperature. 
Roberto Munguia-Steyer, Luis Bucio
Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Iztacala, Mexico, Mexico

Male waterbugs (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae) perform ventilation movements that aerate the egg-pads they carry called brood pumping. In a longitudinal study we evaluated parental care duration and brood pumping rates in individuals according to the number of eggs they carry, egg development and temperature in the 16 individuals of the species Abedus dilatatus and 45 individuals of the species A. ovatus. The relationship between temperature and duration of parental care was negative, and there was not significant differences comparing the slopes of each species. Male brood pumping rates did not differ between species. Males carrying larger egg pads and individuals that experienced higher temperatures showed higher brood pumping rates. Additionally, as the eggs are more developed there was an increase in the brood pumping rates. In this work we discuss parental care costs and their impact to their energetic reserves in a context of climate change.
Session: Bringing Up Baby: Parental Behavior
Generalist leader species maintain mixed-species flocks across habitat types with different complexity
Pablo Muñoz1,2, Luis Sandoval1,2
1Escuela de Biología, San Pedro, San José, Costa Rica, 2Laboratorio de Ecología Urbana y Comunicación Animal, San Pedro, San José, Costa Rica

Species assemblages in different environments are mediated by the habitat structure and the resources available. In the case of mixed-species bird flocks, the habitat structure may determine their presence. Mixed-species flock structure and occurrence in those scenarios are limited mostly by the restrictions in the mobility of the flocks through the landscape, vanishing them from certain areas. The purpose of this study was to determine how the variations in habitat structure relates to the composition and occurrence of mixed flocks in Costa Rican highland forest. We did this by measuring habitat structure traits (canopy height, understory cover, canopy cover, diameter at breast height and leaf area index) in 16 plots that covering the different habitats present in the area. We also conducted mixed-species flock surveys and gather data on species, individuals, and their occurrence points during 2019 to relate them to the habitat traits. We found that mixed flocks were maintained through all the habitats because it's highly adaptable and moveable core species, which were present in all the different habitats recruiting different species to the mixed flocks.
Session: Influencing each other: Social Behavior
Effect of sudden urban noise on bout song length in a suboscine: an experimental approach
Isaac Muñoz-Santos, Alejandro Ariel Ríos-Chelén
Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala , Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala, Mexico

Oscine birds modify their songs to increase the detection in urban noise. However, our understanding of the strategies that suboscines, a suborder of birds with comparatively lower vocal flexibility, use to cope with noise is still poor. Observations suggest that the vermilion flycatcher, interrupts its song bout in the presence of sudden urban noise (SUN). We tested if in the presence of SUN vermilion flycatchers will interrupt their song bouts. We conducted a repeated measures playback experiment where we broadcast SUN (simulating a car passing by) on free-living males. We recorded their song bouts before, during and after SUN. We also recorded urban noise and artificial light at night (ALAN) in each male territory to evaluate whether these pollutants are associated to how males respond to our treatments. Regardless of ambient noise and ALAN intensities in each male's territory, they interrupted their song bout, decreasing song bout length, during the presence of SUN; song bout size and latency to sing did not differ before and after the SUN treatment. Our results show that males modify the tempo of their singing to avoid peaks of noise.
Session: Virtual Posters
Dynamic bridge construction in army ants facing complex challenges
Isabella B. Muratore1, Jesse L. Hunt2, Marc Seid2, Simon Garnier1
1New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey, USA, 2University of Scranton, Scranton, Pennsylvania, USA

What behavioral rules and environmental factors govern the formation of living architecture? During the predatory raids of Eciton army ants, workers form bridges by linking their bodies to span obstacles along trails, allowing others to traverse terrain more efficiently. To understand where and when ants construct bridges, we incorporated artificial terrain into established trails and manipulated angled sections. This allowed us to assess whether bridge location depends on the angle of obstacles and whether solutions for multiple obstacles differ from those for a single obstacle. In this latter untested scenario, bridge position across the first obstacle might influence the position of the second, in that efficiency could be greatly increased if neighboring bridges were aligned in a continuous path. A multiple-obstacle challenge could also potentially have more than one optimal solution. Decision-making in army ant bridges allows ants to converge towards optima in different environments without conceptual understanding of group efficiency. Our observations can provide efficient solutions to problems in human traffic patterns and inspire collaborative robotic behavior.
Session: Virtual Talks
Application and Growth of Transferable Skills--Animal Behavior Projects in a Senior Capstone Course 
Katherine Murphy, Melissa Shyan-Norwalt
University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA

Capstone courses are for students to show the culmination of skills gained during their academic careers. In this fully online Animal Cognition capstone, a midterm project has students apply critical thinking, written expression, understanding of research & creative processes, and information/technological literacy skills to a Small-N experiment. Students test a domesticate dog or cat on Expectancy of Reward, Foraging Strategies, & Object Permanence. Students write an APA research report. Through the lens of Bloom's Taxonomy--In the Introduction, students demonstrate information literacy skills and an ability to Remember the concepts being studied & Understand the relation of prior literature to the current hypothesis. In the Methods & Results sections, students show understanding of research processes & an ability to Apply concepts learned. They Analyze relationships & connections within their data. In the Discussion section, students showcase their ability to think critically & Evaluate their results in regards to prior literature and theory. This animal behavior/cognition project, thus, provide the opportunity to produce transferable reasoning skills valuable across disciplines.
Session: Virtual Talks
Home ranges and effects of moon phases on the movement ecology of Indian flying fox males 
Baheerathan Murugavel1, Sripathi Kandula2, Almut Kelber3, Hema Somanathan1
1IISER TVM Centre for Research and Education in Ecology and Evolution (ICREEE), School of Biology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, 2 74-6-51, Sravanthi Enclave, Prakash Nagar , Rajamahendravaram, Andhra Pradesh, India, 3Lund Vision Group, Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Lund, Sweden

Flying foxes of the genera Pteropus are amongst the largest fruit bats and potential long-range pollinators/seed dispersers in the paleotropics. Pteropus giganteus (currently medius) is the only flying fox distributed in the Indian mainland, whose home range and movement ecology remain little studied. Using GPS telemetry, we mapped the home ranges of P. giganteus males and studied their roosting and foraging patterns in southern India. Males are long-distance flyers, commuting distances of up to 40 km in a single night, and >100 km between roosts. A sub-adult male commuted longer distances per night and had a larger home range (~ 65 km2) than three adults (20±8 km2). Movement was little influenced by moon phases except for a significiantly reduced variance in the nightly distance commuted on moonlit nights. A foraging site was present in the direction of emergence for >60% of flight tracks across individuals. Bats visited >21 plant species with Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, and Manilkara zapota being most frequented. Our results provide crucial information on the space use in P. giganteus in a semi-urban landscape with implications for understanding their ecosystem services. 
Session: The thrill of the hunt: Predators and their ecological effects
A thorn in the side of cricket farming - do dermestid hastisetae affect cricket fitness traits?
Matthew J. Muzzatti1, Marshall W. Ritchie1, Alyssa Froome1, Emilie C. Bess2, Heath A. MacMillan1, Sue M. Bertram1
1Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 2Entomo Farms, Norwood, Ontario, Canada

Mass rearing of insects for feed and food is a developing industry, and a new challenge facing the industry is unanticipated pests. Extremely low harvest yields are reported by insect farms during heavy Dermestes ater (Dermestidae) infestations, but the reasons for this low yield are unknown. Dermestid larvae are covered in dense, detachable, barbed hastisetae, which can obstruct the digestive tracts of invertebrate predators. We tested how food contaminated with hastisetae impacts cricket life history and fitness traits. Using a common farmed species, Gryllodes sigillatus (Gryllidae), we reared 40 individuals on each of three diets containing hastisetae from 0, 1, or 2 dermestids per g of feed. We monitored survival thrice weekly, and quantified time to adult eclosion, mass and body size. We then placed males into an electronic acoustic recording system for 14 days and measured how dermestid infestation impacted signalling behaviour (onset, vigor, and spectral properties critical to mating success). Characterizing host-pest interactions between these two species is a crucial first step towards an integrated pest management plan for dermestid infestations in cricket farms.
Session: Poster Session 2
Do urban-living yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata, experience the paradox of choice?
Mijke Müller, Neville Pillay
University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa

The human psycho-economic phenomenon "paradox of choice" suggests that, although some choice is better than no choice, even more choice is not necessarily better than some choice. But, beyond humans, this paradigm has only been extended to nonhuman primates thus far. The effects of increased choice on animals, especially in an urban context where choice and availability of resources may be greater, remains unknown. We assessed whether urban-dwelling yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata, experience a paradox of choice when presented with many food choices. Using cafeteria-style feeding experiments, we investigated their decision-making when presented with various food items offering less or more choice. The mongooses took the longest to make a decision when presented with an intermediate level of choice and made the quickest decision when presented with more choices or no choice at all. Furthermore, mongooses' decision-making was less predictable and more complex when presented with more choice when compared to no choice. These preliminary results suggest that mongooses may experience some degree of a paradox of choice and be cognitively challenged when facing amplified choice.
Session: Virtual Posters
Anthropause Outcomes: Neutral Effects on a Population of Spiny-tailed Iguana, Ctenosaura similis
Ann-Elizabeth Nash1,2
1University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO, USA, 2Colorado Reptile Humane Society, Longmont, CO, USA

Anthropause offers an opportunity to understand how animals behave experiencing a sudden reduction of human activities. In March 2020, the pandemic resulted in the closure of Costa Rican national parks. At Palo Verde National Park, all Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS) visits were cancelled, and staffing was greatly reduced. A stable aggregation of Spiny-tailed Iguana, Ctenosaura similis, living on the OTS station and studied since 2013, was assessed to understand the effects of the anthropause. With reduction of human workers and visitors, animals including Ocelot, Grey Fox, and White-tailed Deer began using station areas. When the park reopened to visitors, some marked lizards were absent during surveys and lizards had endured bodily trauma. Data analysis determined the persistence of individuals from first capture to current capture period. While the number of first-time captures varied across years, the quantity of known animals captured from each previous period was significantly consistent. For Spiny-tailed Iguanas, in the absence of suspected predator release, and in the presence of predator congenerics, the anthropause did not change persistence for this population.
Session: A Whole New World: Anthropogenic Effects on Behavior
Instrumental Learning of Motor Routines in Pollen Foraging Bees is Nothing to Sneeze At
Katherine C. Naumer1, Annaliese N. Novinger1, Dalton M. McCart1, Rachel Wilkins1, Haley Muse1, Tia-Lynn Ashman2, Avery L. Russell1, Maggie M. Mayberry1
1Missouri State University, Springfield, MO, USA, 2University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Learning to forage is ubiquitous among animals, and bees foraging for nectar from flowers have been a model system for the study of learning for over 120 years. While bees often use sophisticated learned motor routines to extract nectar, bees must also forage for pollen. Yet surprisingly, the role of instrumental learning in pollen foraging is poorly understood. We investigated (1) whether bees learn and remember motor routines to extract pollen from flowers, (2) whether learned motor routines vary when foraging on different flowers, and (3) whether learning improved pollen collection. We assessed learning and memory by allowing each bee to forage on flowers across two consecutive days. Preliminary data suggests that extracting pollen from each plant species involves learning unique motor routines, each of which requires different amounts of experience to learn. In addition, learned motor routines were remembered for at least 24 hours, with some variation due to memory decay. Finally, learning improved foraging efficiency. Altogether, our results demonstrate that, similar to nectar foraging, pollen foraging involves instrumental learning, as well as similar cognitive constraints.
Session: Poster Session 1
Bats track their moth prey through predictive control of their echolocation pulses during predatory encounters
Nozomi Nishiumi1, Emyo Fujioka2, Shizuko Hiryu2
1National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki, Aichi, Japan, 2Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Aichi, Japan

Bats are able to capture agilely escaping prey despite the unavoidable sensory delays associated with their echolocation system. This fact has been implied for a long time that bats employ a predictive mechanism to accurately identify the locations of their prey via their ultrasound pulses. However, such a predictive pulse control mechanism have only been demonstrated under specific conditions in which the movement of the target object was restricted to one or two dimension or when bats were forced to remain stationary. In the present study, we demonstrated bats use predictive pulse control during actual predation events where bats and prey interact in three dimensions. Moreover, we showed that this predictive mechanism increases the accuracy of their sighting and works most effectively when it is coupled with modification of the pulse emission rate and pulse beam width. We also showed that an internal model that considers the angular velocity better explains their predictive pulse control mechanism than a previously proposed model.
Session: Think Twice: Predator-Prey Interactions
Classical Conditioning in an Animal Without a Brain, the Brittle Star Ophiocoma echinata
Julia C. Notar, Madeline C. Go, Sönke Johnsen
Duke University, Durham, NC, USA

We tested whether individuals of the ophiuroid species Ophiocoma echinata were able to associate a period of darkness with the presentation of a food reward. Like other echinoderms, ophiuroids are marine invertebrates that lack centralized nervous systems and instead have five radially arranged ganglia joined by a central nerve ring. Though a small number of studies have demonstrated operant and classical conditioning in sea stars (Class Asteroidea), the other echinoderm classes remain relatively untested. An experimental group was trained by presenting food during a period of darkness, while control group animals were fed under regular daytime room lights many hours after the period of darkness. After the training period, the experimental group demonstrated they had learned to associate the two cues by regularly emerging during the dark period even when no food was presented. The untrained control animals, as well as pre-training experimental animals, did not emerge during the dark periods when no food was presented. This study presents strong evidence for classical conditioning in a relatively untested group of animals that lack centralized nervous systems.
Session: Rack your brain: Behavioral Plasticity & Cognition
Influence of Visual Background on Discrimination of Signal-Relevant Colors in Zebra Finches
Stephen Nowicki1, Alexander Davis1, Matthew N. Zipple1,2, Danae Diaz1, Susan Peters1, Sönke Johnsen1
1Duke University, Durham, NC, USA, 2Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

Animal color signals are often surrounded by high-contrast achromatic backgrounds, but much remains unknown about the functional significance of this arrangement. In humans and non-human animals, background color can affect the perception of a color stimulus, with high color contrast between a background and two given color stimuli making discrimination more difficult. It remains unclear, however, how achromatic background contrast affects signal discrimination in non-human animals. We asked whether achromatic contrast between signal-relevant colors and an achromatic background affects the ability of zebra finches to discriminate between those colors. Using an odd-one-out paradigm, we found that higher achromatic contrast with the background-positive or negative-decreases the ability of zebra finches to discriminate between target and non-target stimuli. This effect is particularly strong when color distances are small (< 4 ΔS) and Michelson achromatic contrast with the background is high (> 0.5). We suggest that researchers should consider color patches and their backgrounds as collectively comprising a signal, rather than focusing solely on the focal color patch itself.
Session: Not on the same page: Communication & Sexual conflict
A self-made kindergarten: Juvenile subgroup formation in Roseate spoonbills and Gouldian finches
M. Ryan Nugent1, Gregory M. Kohn1,2
1Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens, Jacksonville, Florida, USA, 2University of North Florida, Jacksonville, Florida, USA

Forming social relationships between individuals in complex groups provides insight into developing patterns of social organization and behavioral development. In avian species, building social relationships is crucial to developing later social skills, suggesting that relationships formed during adolescence are of unique developmental importance, but relatively unknown. In this study we uncover patterns of social interactions in separate groups of juvenile Gouldian finches and Roseate spoonbills through transitionary periods and contexts over time. Twenty Gouldian finches from 4 family groups were introduced into 2 flocks, and 20 Roseate spoonbills were housed at the Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens. We found significant patterns of age-based assortment in both groups - juveniles significantly preferred to interact with peers over adults. These groups seem to reflect stable associations with siblings that are maintained during the transition in the group. This self-assortment of juveniles suggests that sibling sub-groups are an important bridge linking experiences within the family and the wider group and may play a crucial role in shaping behavioral development during independence.
Session: Poster Session 2
Mean Mares: Linking Contraception Management and Aggression in Feral Mares (Equus caballus)
Cassandra Nunez
The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA

A comprehensive understanding of the unintended effects of wildlife management is critical to effective and ethical species management. In feral horses (Equus caballus), contraception management with porcine zona pellucida (PZP) can affect the behavior of recipients: treated females are up to 10 times more likely to leave their normally stable groups and join others than are untreated females. Such decreases to group stability likely decrease both a female's ability to bond with groupmates and to establish stable positions within the female dominance hierarchy. I investigated the links between management-induced group changing behavior and 1) female aggression frequency, 2) female placement within dominance hierarchies, and 3) the establishment of stable, within-group dominance hierarchies. Because PZP is used to control populations of several species, including white-tailed deer, elk, black bear, and the endangered African elephant and Przewlaski's horse, the results from this study could not be more urgent. This work provides a more complete understanding of our management strategies' unintended effects, providing guidance for more effective and ethical wildlife management.
Session: What is going to work? Team work!: Social Behavior
Behavioral stress responses of turkey chicks (Meleagris gallopavo) to parasitic infection at differing ages
Laney H Nute, Richard Buchholz
University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS, USA

Hosts are expected to elicit stress responses from parasitic infections, but whether the age of infection influences this response is largely unknown. Previous research has demonstrated a correlation between tonic immobility duration (TI), a documented measure of stress, and passive coping strategies. The aim of this study was to determine if experimental infection of turkey chicks (Meleagris gallopavo) with Eimeria coccidia elicited altered TI and if the age or length of infection influenced this response. TI duration was measured repeatedly in individuals such that the TI of chicks infected at different ages could be compared to the TI of similarly aged but uninfected chicks. Infection did increase TI response duration, but neither age nor length of infection had any significant influence. Turkey chicks increase the duration of their behavioral stress response similarly regardless of when they are infected or how long they are infected, which provides support for a passive coping response after infection. 
Session: Poster Session 1
Using Dataloggers to Test the Function of Vocal Activity During Collective Departure in Wild Baboons
Lisa O'Bryan1, Andrew King2, Guy Cowlishaw3, Simon Garnier4
1Rice University, Houston, TX, USA, 2Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom, 3Zoological Society of London, London, United Kingdom, 4New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ, USA

Signals produced in collective movement contexts can have several functions, including coordinating the timing of movement and shaping the movement trajectory. Given that the collective transition from rest to movement is not instantaneous, differentiating between pre- and post- movement signaling functions is not straightforward. To clarify the role communication plays in collective movement, our study leverages wearable datalogggers with GPS and audio recording capabilities that we deployed on 9 adult (60%) wild baboons (Papio ursinus) over 30 days at Tsaobis Nature Park, Namibia. After detecting grunts and periods of movement onset, we examined their relationship on both a group-wide and individual level. We found a significant increase in group-wide calling behavior prior to group departure, followed by significantly more calling after departure. Preliminary analyses indicate these results are driven by the staggered departure of individuals who begin calling as they begin departing. Results support the hypothesis that grunts serve as movement, rather than pre-departure, signals. Future studies will examine the role grunts may play in the coordination of active movement.
Session: Let me show you the way: Study Design
Temporal dynamics of novel affiliative relationship formation in monk parakeets
Claire L. O'Connell, Annemarie van der Marel, Elizabeth A. Hobson
University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA

In social animals, the presence, context, and strength of social relationships are often fundamental to the formation and maintenance of social groups and can have a substantial effect on individual fitness and group stability. Novel affiliative relationships generally develop over time, but relationship formation can be time-consuming, and interacting with unfamiliar individuals can lead to aggression. More socially competent individuals should be able to better balance the costs and benefits of novel relationships. Here we investigate the temporal dynamics of a captive group of monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monahcus) as they form novel relationships. We use affiliative interaction data between familiar and unfamiliar individuals during the initial group formation period. We found that novel relationships could form quickly (in 1-3 weeks) between previous strangers. Understanding temporal patterns of affiliative relationship formation can provide insight into how and what social information is integrated into social decision-making, and how social competency can bolster an individual's affiliative network.
Session: Social Competency: An Integrative Approach to Understanding Connections Between Social Information, Decision-Making, and Cognition
Conservation Status, Personality, and Innovation in Captive Carnivores
Victoria L. O'Connor1, Natalia Borrego2, Lisa P. Barrett3, Jennifer Vonk1
1Oakland University, Rochester Hills, Michigan, USA, 2University of Konstanz and Department for the Ecology of Animal Societie, Max Planck Institute for Animal Behavior, Konstanz, Germany, 3San Diego Wildlife Alliance, San Diego, California, USA

Studying species and individual differences in evolved traits and their association with general cognitive capacities, such as behavioral flexibility, can add to this understanding of how environmental factors impact personality, which may influence cognitive and behavioral outcomes. We assessed the personality of various carnivores with differing IUCN conservation statuses through keeper ratings and used these latent traits to predict problem-solving performance in a multi-access puzzle box. We expected that species under lower levels of threat would outperform more critically endangered species when comparing the performance of 62 captive carnivores representing 16 species from 5 families. We expected that IUCN would predict behavioral differences in personality, which would then mediate the association of IUCN status with differences in persistence, exploration diversity, and neophobia, which, in turn, would predict problem-solving success on a test of innovation. Understanding the connection between IUCN status, personality traits and behavioral outcomes will assist in ensuring the protection of diverse species in their natural habitats and ethical treatment in captivity. 
Session: Virtual Talks
Comparative morphology of an extended phenotype: A meta-analysis of ant nest architecture
Sean O'Fallon, Art Zhao, Noa Pinter-Wollman
University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA

The structure of physical space is a key factor governing the collective behavior of groups. The collective behavior of social insect colonies is based on interactions among individuals. These interactions can be shaped by the architecture of the nest a colony inhabits. Ants are a species-rich taxonomic group with diverse patterns of nest architecture and collective behavior. This diversity enables us to investigate links between physical space and collective behavior. Using a meta-analysis, we tested the relationship between nest architecture and both collective foraging and nest defense. We predicted that ant species that forage with recruitment will inhabit nests with larger and more highly connected entrance chambers that facilitate social interactions required for recruitment, compared to species that forage without recruitment. Further, we predict that species exposed to frequent predatory nest invasion will inhabit nests with few connections between chambers and long tunnels to reduce the impact of nest invasion. Our results will uncover how the behavior of animal groups is shaped by physical space, which is important for understanding the evolution of social behavior.
Session: Long Live the Queen?: Insect Social Behavior
Reducing stress and improving human-animal interactions for research pigs
Carly I. O'Malley1, Raina Hubley1, Halimatou Tambadou1, Patricia V Turner1,2
1Charles River Laboratories, Wilmington, MA, USA, 2University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada

Restraining pigs for procedures may result in stress and/or injury to the pig. This study investigated the effects of habituation to restraint in a hammock sling over a 14-day period. Göttingen minipigs (n=44) were randomly assigned to control (C: no habituation) or treatment (T: habituated for six 3-min sessions) groups. At the end of the study, pigs were assessed for stress during blood collection using plasma cortisol (ug/dL) and struggle behavior (s). Pigs' response to humans was assessed using latency to touch and time spent interacting (s) with human during a human approach test. Linear models were fitted for each variable with fixed effects of treatment and sex. T pigs had lower plasma cortisol (estimate: -2.36, SE: 0.657, P=0.001) than C pigs, but no difference in struggle behavior was observed (P>0.05). T pigs were quicker to approach (estimate:  -5.352, SE: 1.72, P=0.003) and spent more time interacting with the human (estimate: 3.091, SE: 1.448, P=0.039) the day after blood collection. Short periods of habituation are beneficial to research pigs, although more habituation might be needed to see calmer behavior during restraint.
Session: Virtual Talks
Citizen science data reveals birdsong plasticity during aggressive interactions
Pietra O. Guimarães, Letícia C. Guimarães, Renato Oliveira, Fernando Almeida, Pedro Diniz
Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil

Birds may alter song structure in response to territorial challenges to convey information about aggressive intent or fighting ability. Bird enthusiasts upload daily many birdsong recordings into acoustic libraries, usually scoring whether songs were recorded in response to a conspecific playback or produced spontaneously. We analyzed recordings from these libraries to evaluate if song traits of rufous-browed peppershrikes (Cyclarhis gujanensis) vary between playback-elicited songs and spontaneous songs. For each recording after playback, we chose one spatially closer spontaneous recording to avoid geographic bias. Birds recorded after playback produced longer songs than birds that were singing spontaneously. Playback did not alter song frequency parameters (bandwidth, minimum, mean, and maximum frequencies) or song rate. These results indicate that song duration might mediate aggressive interactions in rufous-browed peppershrikes. Even considering limitations such as unknown playback stimulus identity and possibly pseudoreplication, acoustic libraries give a unique yet unexplored opportunity to study the evolution of song flexibility during aggressive encounters.
Session: Virtual Posters
Female song rates do not correspond with testosterone concentrations in a temperate breeding songbird
Karan J. Odom1, Nora H. Prior1,2, Gregory F. Ball1, Cara A. Krieg3
1University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA, 2Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA, 3University of Scranton, Scranton, PA, USA

Much research has investigated the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating male song in temperate songbirds. The classic paradigm is that male song rates increase with circulating testosterone concentrations in the blood early in the breeding season. Very little is known about female birdsong regulation and if song rates increase with circulating testosterone. Female northern house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) have a pronounced peak in singing during female fertile periods at the start of egg laying. We investigated whether this peak in female song corresponds to seasonal changes in circulating testosterone, as seen in male songbirds. Female house wren circulating testosterone was low throughout the breeding season (on average three times lower than breeding male house wren circulating testosterone concentrations) and testosterone levels did not show a significant increase as compared to pre-breeding concentrations at any breeding stage. Therefore, circulating testosterone levels alone do not appear to regulate song rates in adult female house wrens, suggesting that alternative mechanisms besides testosterone concentrations regulate female song rates in this temperate breeding songbird.
Session: Poster Session 1
Betweenness Centrality Can Indicate Dominance Boundaries and Policing Within Groups?
Adriana S. Oliveira-Ueno, Patrícia F. Monticelli
Universidade de São Paulo, RIBEIRÃO PRETO, São Paulo, Brazil

A harmonic relationship between dominants and subordinates is essential to social groups. Identifying the key individuals for that can bring crucial information about hierarchical patterns. We analyzed the hierarchy of a zoo-captive capybaras group (n=10) using Social Network Analysis. The values ​​of outdegree and indegree dropped abruptly after the 4th rank position, in opposition to smooth graduation between 1-4th and 5-10th, revealing dominants (1-4th) and subordinates (5 - 10th) groups. The last individual in the dominant's rank had the highest betweenness value. In theory, removing individuals with high values ​​of that measure can result even in the fission of the original group. Thus, the last dominant position seems to be the highest link of cohesion between the dominants and the subordinates of the studied group. Therefore, we want to stimulate a discussion about the potential of this measure in the elucidation of social factors involved in the cohesion between dominants and subordinates. We suggest that betweenness ​​has the potential to reveal key individuals in the dominance structure, who can act as policing or buffering individuals to dominant-subordinate conflicts.
Session: Virtual Posters
Sex differences in social behavior of immature wild capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus)
Julia Omena, Patricia Izar
Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) are social primates with complex and diverse behavioral repertoire. Sociability plays an important role in the development of the infants, because they learn basic skills via social learning and develop strong social bonds with groupmates, but the investigation of the ontogenesis of social behavior is scarce in wild capuchin monkeys. We observed the development of the sociability trait of 12 wild capuchin monkeys and analyzed videos recorded during the first 3 years of life of each infant: 6 males and 6 females, and tested the rate of emission and reception of affiliative social behaviors, such as grooming, lipsmacking and others. GLMMs were used for statistical analysis. The rate of emission of behaviors of females were generally higher than the males, mainly on the 2nd and 24th month of life, and the rate of reception were equal between sexes. The GLMM tests showed a significant role of sex as a fixed effect in the emission of behaviors, with females initiating more affiliative behaviors than males. We suggest that these sex differences may be related to the fact that in Sapajus, females are philopatric and males emigrate in late juvenility.
Session: Virtual Posters
Observations of Dolphin and Whale Sexual Behaviors From An Aerial Perspective
Dara N Orbach1, Karin L Hartman2, Jordan Lerma3, Robin W Baird3, Fabian Rodríguez-González4, 5, Eric A Ramos6, 7
1Texas A&M University- Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, USA, 2Risso’s Dolphin Research Center, Nova Atlantis Foundation, Pico, Azores, Portugal, 3Cascadia Research Collective, Olympia, Washington, USA, 4Laguna San Ignacio Ecosystem Science Program , San Ignacio, Baja California Sur, Mexico, 5Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur, La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico, 6Fundación Internacional para la Naturaleza y la Sustentabilidad, Chetumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico, 7The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, USA

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly used to research cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises) that reside in inaccessible waters and can be noninvasive if flown at a minimal altitude. In recent years, UAVs have been applied to ascertain the identity, population estimates, genetics, and health status of a variety of species of cetaceans, although few studies have applied UAVs to assess behavioral patterns. It was recently documented that behavioral data on dolphins are more accurate when collected via UAV compared to a vessel platform. We present high-resolution UAV video footage of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus), Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus), rough-toothed dolphins (Steno bredanensis), and gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) engaged in conspecific socio-sexual behaviors. We analyze and compare videos of species-specific sexual behaviors that are uniquely discernable from an aerial perspective, and discuss how selection pressures may contribute to mating tactics. We elucidate questions about the mating patterns of cetaceans that can now be addressed through reliable utility of aerial platforms of observation.
Session: Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus, or Is It the Opposite? Sexual conflict
Evolutionary loss of complexity in animal communication: cause and consequence
Terry J. Ord
University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, Australia

What drives the evolution of increasingly extravagant forms of animal communication has been a popular focus of researchers, often in the context of how sexual selection promotes the evolutionary elaboration of social signals within species. Why animal signals lose complexity is less clear. Iguanian lizards are a massive global group of lizards that have evolved a form of communication centred on the performance of an elaborate sequence of head-bob and push-up movements. These visual displays are evolutionary ancient and especially important for males in advertising territory ownership and attracting mates. Within this group, Southeast Asian Draco lizards are unusual because of the additional evolution of a large colourful dewlap that is rapidly extended as an enhancement to the main push-up display. However, in one clade, the dewlap has superseded the ancestral push-up display, which has been entirely lost from the display repertoire. A large field-based phylogenetic comparative study is presented that tests various adaptive and non-adaptive hypotheses for the cause and consequence of this apparent major loss of signal complexity.
Session: Virtual Talks
Novel method for studying cognition in wild capuchin monkeys  
Juan Carlos Ordoñes Jimenez1, Alexander Fuentes1, Marcela E Benítez1,2
1Capuchinos de Taboga, Cañas, Guanacaste, Costa Rica, 2Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Interactive experiments provide a flexible framework for tackling cognitive questions regarding how animals make decisions. These experiments have a solid tradition in captivity, but are rarely incorporated into the field with wild primates, due to the difficulty of conducting controlled experiments in unpredictable environments. There are three main challenges to conducting these experiments in the wild: 1) participation is often limited, 2) one individual can monopolize testing, and 3) experiments are often one-shot interactions. In this talk, we present a  field-friendly method for studying cognition in wild capuchins at the Reserva Forestal Taboga. We designed a simple apparatus that controls reward distribution, increases the number of trials, and targets specific individuals. This new apparatus distributes up to multiple rewards per session, resulting in 4 trials per box. Experimenters start a trial by releasing a reward from a 24ft distance preventing the monkeys from associating the baiting of the apparatus with the researchers. This design opens the door to multiple cognitive experiments in the wild, where cognitive decisions can have real-world fitness consequences.  
Session: Social Competency: An Integrative Approach to Understanding Connections Between Social Information, Decision-Making, and Cognition
Got milk? The evolution of parent-derived nutrition across the animal kingdom
Kristen Orr, Susan McRae
East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA

Milks are nutritious substances produced by the body of a parent and fed to offspring. They are found in diverse animal lineages including mammals, birds, amphibians, fish, and many lineages of invertebrates. Milk production is an elaborate form of parental care that greatly enhances offspring fitness. It requires specialized tissues ranging from simple secretory surfaces to elaborate glands with increased surface area. To understand the origins of milk production, we reviewed literature on its occurrence across the animal kingdom and examined trends. Ecological factors that likely determine in which animal lineages milk production evolved include unpredictable food availability, inaccessibility of parental diet, high predation risk, and extreme environmental conditions. We then considered what factors determine where milk production evolves on the parent's body. Milk production likely evolved in structures that originally served secretory functions that were later exapted to serve an additional nutritive function.  
Session: Virtual Talks
Fishing cashews. Transport of tool sets in Goffin's cockatoos.
Antonio J. Osuna-Mascaró1, Mark O'Hara1, Sabine Tebbich2, Sarah R. Beck3, Alice M. I. Auersperg1
1Messerli Research Institute (University of Veterinary Medicine), Vienna, Outside US/Canada, Austria, 2Department of Behavioural Biology, (University of Vienna), Vienna, Outside US/Canada, Austria, 3School of Psychology (University of Birmingham), Vienna, Outside US/Canada, United Kingdom

Associative tool use is an extremely rare ability in non-human species; only few primates and birds have been reported to perform it in the laboratory, and only two species (chimpanzees and Goffin's cockatoos) use tool-sets in the wild. Chimpanzees have even been observed to transport their tool-sets, prior to use, in a flexible manner depending on the need. Such transportation of several tool types together is considered evidence of a genuine tool-set, as a second tool selection and use is not just a response to the outcomes of a previous tool use, but requires a certain degree of planning. Goffin's cockatoos represent a fascinating species to study tool use; although Goffin's don't use tools in a species-wide manner, they depend on general domain cognition and are not adapted to tool use (as other bird tooling species), which likely results in extremely innovative capabilities. In these series of experiments, we tested Goffin's cockatoos in tasks inspired by the termite fishing of chimpanzees in the Goualougo Triangle (Congo). Goffin's cockatoos have proven to be able to flexibly use and flexibly transport a tool-set for an immediate use.
Session: Growing Smart: Development and Cognition
Are urban inshore dolphins synanthropic?: the behavior of bottlenose dolphins in an urbanized seascape
Lenin E. Oviedo-Correa1, Steven D Fallas-Fernández1,2, Addy Echevarria2, David Herra-Miranda1, Manuel González3
1Laboratorio de Ecología de Mamíferos Marinos Tropicales, Centro de Investigación de Cetáceos de Costa Rica CEIC, Rincon de Osa, PUNTARENAS, Costa Rica, 2Escuela de Biología, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica UNA, Heredia, Heredia, Costa Rica, 3Deep Baja, La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico

The bottlenose-dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are present in the urbanized seascape of La Paz Bay (LPB). This study is an assessment of the ecological patterns (ranging, habitat use, activity budget, population size, survival) to define if they are synanthropic, misanthropic, or something in between this spectrum, as a response to urbanization. Mark recapture surveys (2015-2021) show a population size in LPB (79, C.I: 70-90) and demographic survival (Φ =0.92; C.I: 0.29-1) reflecting a resident small discrete population, with a core habitat use (5 km2) overlapping the shipping channel between the outer bay and the inlet. Foraging and traveling are the most important behaviors. Added to the occurrence of a resident nursery group with calves close to the age of weaning. Overall the latter evidence a mostly positive response, likely balanced by important patches of mangroves in their core habitat. There is a need to assess the relevance of subsidized resources to define any response. Subsidized prey items might be associated with urban structures facilitating prey aggregation, in that sense, we need to further research to evaluate what prey aggregates and where.
Session: Virtual Talks
The behavioral ecology of inshore bottlenose dolphin in a tropical fiord in Southwestern Costa Rica
Juan Diego Pacheco-Polanco, David Herra-Miranda, Lenin Enrique Oviedo Correa
Laboratorio de Ecología de Mamíferos Marinos Tropicales, Centro de Investigación de Cetáceos de Costa Rica CEIC, Rincon de Osa, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

The inshore bottlenose dolphin in Golfo Dulce (GD), a fiord-like embayment in southwestern Costa Rica, has been widely documented during the last sixteen years (2005-2021: 476 boat-surveys: 44513 km). Here, we review and update current knowledge on the a) distribution, behavior, and habitat-use; b) population-size, demography, and reproductive parameters; and c) anthropogenic impacts affecting the management and conservation of this species. In GD, bottlenose dolphins are sympatric with pantropical spotted dolphins. The most recent photoidentification effort (2011-2021) accounts for 105 photo-identified individuals and has yielded important insights in apparent survival (S=0.90, 95% CI: 0.85-0.92). The latest population size estimate (< 120 dolphins) corresponds with a small, localized population, associated with a random pattern of temporal emigration indicating no seasonal influence. The year-round residential females in GD have produced 24 calves since 2011 with an estimated inter-birth interval of 3.4 years (95% CI: 2.984, 3.816). We discuss several conservation implications, including the need to consider stock assessment within national and regional management schemes.
Session: Every cloud has a silver lining: Applied Behavior and Conservation
Efficient Eavesdroppers, Evasive Advertisers, and Multimodal Cocktails
Rachel A Page
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Ancón, Panama

Eavesdropping predators exert strong selection on sexually advertising prey, exploiting their signals for prey detection, assessment, and localization. Investigating the interaction between calling frogs and frog-eating bats, we assess costs and benefits associated with multimodal signaling in simple acoustic environments, in noise, and in echoacoustic clutter. We find that both female frogs (potential mates) and frog-eating bats (heterospecific eavesdroppers) prefer multimodal signals to unimodal ones, and that signal by-products, in the form of ripples on the water surface produced by the inflation and deflation of the male frog's vocal sac, significantly increase both rival male behavior and predator attacks. We investigate the effect of noise and echoacoustic clutter on bat preferences for uni- versus multimodal cues, and quantify bat localization behavior amidst heterospecific chorus noise with and without the presence of a robotic frog with a dynamically inflating vocal sac. Our studies illustrate the role of environmental complexity in mediating costs and benefits associated with multimodal signaling.
Session: The thrill of the hunt: Predators and their ecological effects
Soundscape and wildlife sound archives: preserving the natural acoustic legacy of the planet
Hoover Pantoja-Sánchez, Juan Sebastian Ulloa
Instituto Humboldt, Bogotá, Cundinamarca, Columbia

In the current scenario of mass extinctions, recordings of environmental sounds are particularly relevant to assessing changes in ecosystem structure and documenting behavioral traits of fauna that will likely be extinct in the near future. Audio archives are critical resources which document the behavioral phenotype of a wealth of species by preserving audio specimens spanning broad geographical, temporal, and taxonomic scales. Here, we introduce the Colombian Collection of Environmental Sounds, which started in 1997 and currently provides an ideal scenario to discuss challenges that audio archives face in documenting and protecting the natural acoustic legacy of the planet. Also, we show how directional and automated recordings, treated as collection objects, can be used to promote conservation,  increase ecological awareness, and address a wide variety of research questions. Finally, we encourage animal behavior researchers to contribute and deposit  their recordings in sound archives to promote research, document past and present acoustic environments across our planet, and protect biodiversity for future generations.
Session: Bioacoustics in Tropical Forests
The Interplay of Experience and Pre-existing Bias in Nectar-Robbing Behavior by Bumblebees  
Daniel R. Papaj, Minjung Baek
University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

The ontogeny of nectar robbing by pollinators is not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of pre-existing bias and experience in nectar robbing by bumblebees. Naïve Bombus impatiens workers foraged individually on Tecoma stans flowers in one of two treatments. One treatment offered open flowers with an artificial slit, allowing the bee to rob or enter legitimately; the other treatment offered flowers with slits whose corollas were plugged, requiring the bee to rob. Bees were tested twice, once on each treatment, the order of treatments balanced. First attempts by naïve bees were nearly always legitimate attempts regardless of treatment. Most bees in both treatments robbed during a trial, but plugged flowers were robbed significantly more. Treatment order mattered: bees induced to rob on plugged flowers continued to rob even after legitimate access was restored, suggestive of learning and memory. We speculate that the initial bias towards legitimate visits was due to floral traits to which bees respond innately. We conclude that studies of cognition are essential to understanding cooperation and conflict in the plant-pollinator mutualism.  
Session: Virtual Talks
Vocal labeling of individual conspecifics in African elephants
Michael A. Pardo1, Kurt Fristrup1, David S. Lolchuragi2, Joyce Poole3, Petter Granli3, George Wittemyer1,2
1Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, 2Save The Elephants, Nairobi, Kenya, 3Elephant Voices, Sandefjord, Norway

Using learned vocal labels, or names, to refer to individuals or objects is a central feature of human language, yet the evolutionary origins and taxonomic breadth of this ability are poorly understood. Elephants are among the few mammals capable of learning to produce new sounds, but it is unknown how they use this ability in the wild. To determine if elephants vocally label individual conspecifics, we recorded vocal interactions among wild African elephants in which the identity of both the caller and the receiver were known. Random forest models using acoustic features extracted from these recordings correctly predicted the identity of the receiver at significantly greater than chance levels, suggesting that individual callers modify their vocalizations according to the identity of the intended receiver. If elephants perceive these putative vocal labels, they should respond more strongly to playback of a call that was originally addressed to them than to playback of a call from the same caller that was originally addressed to someone else. We are currently conducting this playback experiment and plan to complete it before ABS 2022.
Session: There's a method to this madness: Signal variability
Familiarity and Social Experience Influence Holistic Face Processing in Paper Wasps
Juanita Pardo-Sanchez, Elizabeth Tibbetts
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

Most recognition is based on identifying features, but specialization for individual face recognition in some taxa relies on a different mechanism termed 'holistic processing' where facial features are bound together into a gestalt which is more than the sum of its parts. Most research on holistic processing has focused on recognition of unfamiliar faces, but animals use recognition to identify highly familiar individuals and unfamiliar individuals. Here, we test how social experience and familiarity influence face processing in Polistes fuscatus wasps. We tested how young and old, experienced wasps discriminate the faces of familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics. We found that young wasps identify familiar faces using holistic processing but use featural mechanisms for unfamiliar faces. In contrast, older wasps identify unfamiliar faces using holistic processing but use featural mechanisms for familiar faces. Thus, familiarity and social experience influence the mechanisms used for recognition. Recognition of both familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics is common in the wild, so there is room for future work testing how familiarity interacts with other factors to influence recognition.
Session: Poster Session 1
Environmental Predictors of Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Behavior in Chincoteague, VA
Abigail A. Parker, Keith A. Tarvin
Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH, USA

The common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is an extensively studied marine mammal species found throughout the Atlantic Ocean. Along the east coast of the United States, both migratory and resident populations exist. The understudied northern migratory population migrates seasonally, overwintering in North Carolina and travelling north during warm water months. We combined land-based behavioral observations of migratory dolphins at the southernmost boundary of their summer migration range with measures of sea floor topography and other environmental variables to assess the influence of environmental factors on milling and traveling behavior. Milling behavior was positively associated with time of day, benthic slope, and benthic slope range during high, falling tide, and it was negatively associated with wind speed. These patterns suggest that prey availability strongly influences dolphin behavior in Chincoteague. Notably, this is one of few studies that have evaluated the effect of environmental variables on migratory bottlenose dolphins in the western north Atlantic, making it a valuable tool for informing conservation measures and successful population management.
Session: Come what may: Ecological Effects
Sex dependent behavioral responses to nitrate in Xiphophorus helleri
Madison Parker, Meredith Fitschen-Brown, Molly Morris
Ohio University , Athens, Ohio, USA

Increased nitrate levels have been found in surface waters due to agriculture. Nitrate has been found to be an endocrine disruptor, however not much is known about its impact on the behavior of fishes. We examined the potential for return to base line levels after a 30-day exposure to nitrate (100 mg/L) for three behaviors: aggression, boldness and female mate preference. Individuals exposed to nitrates and controls that only experienced water changes were assayed for all three behaviors before, during, after exposure. We found that male aggression was reduced due to nitrate, a response that was not plastic. Female aggression was not influenced by nitrates, but was influenced by water changes, a response that was plastic. Boldness was reduced in males exposed to nitrates and in females increased due to nitrate exposure, and for both sexes the responses of boldness were not plastic. Strength of female mate preference for large males was not influenced by nitrates. Our results suggest that the impacts of nitrate exposure on fish behaviors will depend on sex as well as the behavior measured, and are less likely to be plastic as compared to other nonchemical stressors.  
Session: Poster Session 1
"Evaluating Ant's cognitive abilities when brood is at stake"
Manish K. Pathak, Snigdha Mukhopadhyay, Subhashis Halder, Sumana Annagiri
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Primates, dogs, and corvids have been well experimented for their cognitive abilities to solve a given problem, while studies on ant colonies are rarely performed. Co-operative brood care is a feature of social insects and ants transport their brood to their new shelters during relocation. This ecologically inspired study aims to evaluate the cognitive capabilities of Diacamma indicum while performing a goal-oriented task of nest relocation. The pupa has a direct impact on the fitness of the colony, thus ants were self-motivated to transport it to the new nest. With a narrow nest entrance, we challenged their ability to insert intact pupa and examined the strategies they used to overcome this challenge. A total of 284 brood transport events in manipulative experiments were studied from 16 colonies. Co-operative transportation for the pupa and behavioural plasticity among ants was key to overcoming the challenges of the narrow entrance. Ant's ability to insert pupa significantly improved for consecutive three pupal insertions. Colonies also showed significant improvement in failed attempts of insertion over time.
Session: Virtual Posters
Interspecific Competition Promotes Biparental Cooperation in Nicrophorus vespilloides
Casey Patmore, Per T Smiseth
University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Interspecific competition is an important evolutionary and ecological interaction. However, how these interactions influence cooperation between caring parents is not very well understood. The burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides is an insect that cooperates to provide elaborate biparental care, and breeds on small vertebrate carcasses. These carcasses are also sought out by other species, such as the bluebottle fly, Calliphora vomitoria. Despite frequent competition between these two species, little is known about how their interactions inform parental care decisions of N. vespilloides. Here, we investigated how duration and quality of care provided by N. vespilloides varies in the presence of a competitor. We introduced caring parents of N. vespilloides to dead flies at different times and densities. We found that introducing C. vomitoria early in a breeding attempt reduces the rate of abandonment by males, but decreases the overall success of breeding attempts. We also found that females are more likely to abandon their brood when higher numbers of flies are present. Our results show that interspecific competition can promote cooperation between caring parents.
Session: Virtual Talks
Integration of Signaling Traits during Social Interaction in a Color-Changing Lizard
Subhasmita Patro, Maria Thaker
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

During social interactions, animals display various signaling traits. Signal components can be redundant or non-redundant, and thus the extent to which trait components are correlated can determine the outcome of an interaction. Males of Psammophilus dorsalis have elaborate social behaviors that involve changes in body color and behavior, along with increase in steroid hormones. Using wild-caught lizards, we staged male-male interactions and recorded their responses using digital cameras to quantify behavior and color. Males displayed a suite of behaviors, along with dynamic color change in visible and UV spectrum. Blood samples were taken to measure baseline and social interaction-induced hormone levels. We show that although color and behavior are both signals of aggression, they can act independently, such that behaviorally more aggressive individuals do not necessarily display brighter and more saturated colors. Testosterone and corticosterone levels also change due to social interaction and are potential mediators for components of the complex signaling suite. Identifying relationships among these traits is essential to understand the spectrum of social strategies in animals.
Session: Virtual Posters
The decline of the encounter rate of Endangered northeast Pacific Humpback whales in southern Costa Rica
Lili Pelayo-González1,2, David Herra-Miranda2, Juan D. Pacheco-Polanco2, Héctor M. Guzman3, Sierra Goodman4, Lenin E. Oviedo2
1Posgrado en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, UNAM, Ciudad de México, Ciudad de México, Mexico, 2Centro de Investigación de Cetáceos de Costa Rica, Rincon de Osa, Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica, 3Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute , Panama, Panama, Panama, 4Fundación Vida Marina, Drake Bay, Drake Bay, Costa Rica

Warming events in the Pacific Ocean are becoming more intense with larger spatial scale. This has caused habitats of marine species to lose their quality and organisms respond by modifying their critical behaviors, as well as their distribution. The Northeast Pacific humpback whale wintering off Central America remains Endangered due to its small population size and because its response to climate change is unknown. In this work, we showed the encounter rates of humpback whales in their breeding grounds in Costa Rica on reproductive seasons comprised in the period 2000-2006 and 2014-2016. We analyze the environmental conditions of the feeding areas of this population (United States). We hypothesize that the more intense the warming events, the fewer whales complete their migration to Costa Rica. We conclude that the humpback whales of this population could be changing their migratory behavior and finding  thermally favorable areas in intermediate latitudes, which could be related to the decreases in the presence of humpback whales in Costa Rica. These changes could be understood as behavioral response of this population to climate change.
Session: Flexibility it's in the air: Ecological effects & Behavioral Plasticity
A Gut Feeling: Exploring Relationships Between Aggression, Anxiety, and Gut Microbiome Composition in Pet Dogs
Sarita D. Pellowe, Carolyn Walsh, Dawn Bignell, Lourdes Pena-Castillo
Memorial University of Newfoundland , St John's, NL, Canada

Emerging research suggests that differences in gut microbiome content are related to varying levels of aggression and anxiety in dogs. Our research aims to augment these studies by expanding our knowledge of the companion dog's gut microbiome composition in relation to behaviour. In this study, 494 local dog owners completed a diet and lifestyle questionnaire and the online C-BARQ, and 48 pet dogs were selected for fecal sampling to quantify gut microbiota. C-BARQ scores were used to establish higher and lower aggression and anxiety groups, with dogs matched on factors known to impact gut microbiota such as age, diet, deworming status and body condition. DNA was extracted from fresh fecal samples, and the bacterial V4-V5 rRNA region was sequenced. Preliminary results suggest differences in sub-populations of gut bacteria between behavioural groups. Analysis of the questionnaire data showed owner responses to C-BARQ's Familiar Dog Aggression (FDA) sub-scale items were incompatible with information provided in the lifestyle questionnaire in many cases, suggesting the need for further review of how C-BARQ respondents interpret FDA questions.
Session: Virtual Talks
Delayed Gratification: A Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) Will Wait for More (Tokens)
Irene M. Pepperberg1,2, Virginia A. Rosenberger3,4
1The Alex Foundation, Swampscott, MA, USA, 2Hunter College ABC Program, NYC, NY, USA, 3MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA, 4Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

Delay of gratification, the ability to forgo an immediate reward and wait to gain a reward better in either quality or quantity, has been used as a metric for temporal discounting, self-control, and the ability to plan for the future in both humans (particularly children) and nonhumans. Several avian species have been able to wait for a better quality reward for up to 15 min, but none seem able to wait for a better quantity reward for any significant period of time in the classic "marshmallow test". Using a token system (where each wooden heart represents 1 nut piece), we demonstrated that Griffin, a Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus)—who had previously waited up to 15 min for better quality—would now wait for better quantity, again for up to 15 min. Thus, symbolic distancing—that is, removal of the immediate presence of the hedonic item—enabled him to perform at a level comparable to that of young children on the classic test and might be a viable method for training executive function. Additional preliminary data suggest that this training did enable him subsequently to wait for a larger quantity of nuts.  
Session: Virtual Talks
Bayesian updating predicts social dominance formation and the winner effect
Ammon Perkes, Kate Laskowski
University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA

The winner effect is observed across social species, where winning a contest predicts future success in dominance interactions. This is usually moderated by a change in aggressive behavior, suggesting a shift in an individual's estimate of their own resource holding potential. Bayesian updating is an ideal framework to model this effect and provides a potentially optimal strategy for navigating the uncertainty inherent in social conflict, but Bayes theorem has never been applied to the winner effect specifically or social dominance generally. Here I present an agent-based model of social dominance based on Bayesian updating of individuals' self assessment. This model provides a conceptually satisfying description of individual uncertainty, and simulated groups capture the observed features of social conflict, including the importance of the order and unexpectedness of events on the strength of the behavioral response. More importantly, this Bayesian model produces clear predictions for the molecular and behavioral mechanisms of dominance, which can be tested against the predictions of other proposed models, providing the foundation for experimentation and causal inference.
Session: Poster Session 2
Social Information Transmission in California Ground Squirrels
Erin S. Person1, Chelsea A. Ortiz-Jimenez2, Miriam Lucking3, Eileen A. Lacey1, Jennifer E. Smith3
1University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA, 2University of California, Davis, Davis, California, USA, 3Mills College, Oakland, California, USA

The transmission of information between conspecifics is a major benefit of sociality that may help to explain why social networks exist and how they are structured. We evaluated the spread of information through the social network in a population of California ground squirrels in Contra Costa County, California. Specifically, we experimentally manipulated food resources by deploying "smart-feeders" consisting of a plate filled with sand and millet seed and surrounded by a radio-frequency identification (RFID) antenna that registered the identity of every individual that stepped onto the plate to feed as well as the time of arrival and duration of each visit to the plate. We deployed nine smart-feeders in fixed locations, but only one was randomly baited during each four-hour experimental period which ensured individuals had to explore to discover the food. Social interactions observed on or around each plate and during observation periods outside the experiment were used to generate social networks to determine if social network position impacted the order of discovery of the food resource.
Session: Virtual Talks
Urbanization Affects Web Aggregation and Placement of a Funnel Weaver, Agelenopsis pennsylvanica
Brandi Pessman, Madison Hays, Earl Agpawa, Eileen Hebets
University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA

Animals distribute themselves within habitats based on a variety of environmental conditions, including those impacted by urbanization. In Lincoln, Nebraska, USA, funnel-weaving spiders (Agelenopsis pennsylvanica) are prevalent across urban habitats and actively choose web sites. We compared A. pennsylvanica abundance and distribution between two distinct urban habitats: an urban center and an urban forest. We searched along paths from randomly selected start sites in each habitat until we found the first occupied (focal) web. We measured web and spider abundance, distances between the focal and two nearest-neighbor webs, and web height in a ten-meter radius. We found that (i) search distances to focal webs were shorter, and both (ii) webs and (iii) spiders were more abundant in the urban center than in the urban forest, despite less diverse plants for web structures in the urban center. We also found (iv) shorter distances between webs and (v) lower web heights in the urban center. Our data suggest that A. pennsylvanica spatially distribute themselves differently across different urban habitats, and we discuss a variety of environmental variables that may predict this behavior.
Session: Poster Session 2
Community algorithms reveal clustering in Adelaide's warbler song type sequence networks
Heath R. Petkau, Peter C. Mower, Samantha W. Krause, Liam R. Mitchell, David M. Logue
University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, Canada

Network analysis can provide unique descriptions of animal signal sequences, generating insights into their functions. When applied to signal sequence networks, community clustering algorithms define clusters of signals that tend to be delivered in proximity to one another. In this study, we used network analyses, including community clustering algorithms, to compare male Adelaide's warblers' (Setophaga adelaidae) song type sequences during the dawn chorus to sequences delivered after dawn. Relative to the dawn chorus, post-dawn sequences were characterized by higher modularity, lower transitivity, higher average minimum path length, and greater reciprocity. These differences indicate that post-dawn song sequences tend to be more clustered than dawn sequences. Male broadcast song in rapid succession during the dawn chorus, but in post-dawn song, males move around the border of their territories and appear to interact vocally with neighbours one-at-a-time. We hypothesize that song type sequence community structure emerges from this difference, with song type communities in post-dawn sequences comprising clusters of song types that are used to communicate with specific neighbours.
Session: Poster Session 1
Combined Sensory Pollutants Disrupt Morning Rest of Nesting Songbirds
Jennifer Phillips1, Todd Jones1, Clinton Francis2
1Texas A&M University San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA, 2California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA, USA

Daily rhythms are entrained by the sensory world, and 'zeitgebers' such as light and natural sound have been recently encroached upon by anthropogenic sensory pollution. For animals like birds, breeding decisions such as when to incubate and feed are cued by light, and attracting a mate can include acoustic signals, making light and noise pollution evolutionarily novel stimuli that affect mating and parental care behaviors. We use a manipulative experiment that isolates light and noise from urban environments to test whether daily movements of adult cavity nesting birds and their body condition is affected by four treatments: Control, Noise, Light, and Light+Noise. We test our hypothesis that light and noise disrupts sleep and allows for more foraging hours in two species, an urban adapter (Western Bluebird, Sialia mexicana) and an urban avoider (Mountain Bluebird, Sialia currucoides). We show evidence that light and noise have additive negative effects on the start time of daily activity and body condition of mountain bluebirds. Our results are novel and indicate that the combined effects of sensory pollutants warrant further study.
Session: A Whole New World: Anthropogenic Effects on Behavior
Group social structure relates to reproductive success in yellow-bellied marmots
Conner S. Philson1,2, Daniel T. Blumstein1,2
1UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, Gothic, CO, USA

While social network analysis has been used to explore consequences of individual social interactions, less work explored the association between group social structure - specific attributes of the pattern of all social interactions in a group - and the fitness of the individuals who comprise the group. Thus, using GLMMs we studied this association between social structure and annual reproductive success in female yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventer). We quantified reproductive success as: (1) if an individual weaned a litter or not and (2) the number of pups weaned. Networks were constructed from 38,966 social interactions between 726 unique individuals in 137 social groups across 19 years. We found that females residing in more fragmentable social groups weaned larger litters. Previous work showed that yellow-bellied marmots largely do not benefit from increased connectivity on the individual level. Our result suggests this is also observed at the group level; living in socially well-connected groups is costly. We show how an individual's social group's structure has significant consequences for a key fitness correlate in a wild population of free-living mammals.
Session: Virtual Talks
Documenting Mating Pair and Parental Care Behavior of Two Species of Ovoviviparous Cockroaches  
Cheyenne Phipps, Ruben Coss, Madelyn Ford, Rebecca Beresic-Perrins, Stephen Shuster
Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA

Giant cockroaches include approximately 3,500 species, some of which are ovoviviparous, meaning they produce live young after eggs hatch within their mothers' bodies. To explore the effects of uni- and bi-parental care on offspring growth and survival in Madagascar hissing (Gromphadorhina portentosa) and Dubia roaches (Blaptica dubia), we established male-female mating pairs of each species (41 G. portentosa, 40 B. dubia) from different colony lineages. After parturition, we reared split broods into treatments with and without parental care, isolating the former group by themselves in a separate bin with only the brood mates. We subdivided with-care families into uniparental and biparental groups and monitored offspring growth and survival weekly for two months for each family group in 2021-22. Preliminary results indicate that parental care enhances offspring success (growth and survival) in both species, but there was no difference in growth and survival between uni- and bi parental treatment, or between species. Our results further understanding of parental care in these insects.  
Session: Poster Session 2
Genetic line and courtship experience affect three mating behaviors in male Trinidadian guppies
Nathan Phipps1, Laura Stein2, Kim Hoke1
1Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA, 2University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA

Animal mating behavior is influenced by both genetic background and lifetime experience. We sought to investigate the genetic architecture of courtship behaviors and their plasticity in response to mating experience. Reproductively isolated populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) occur in environments with either high or low predation rates. This genetic background influences many phenotypes, including male courtship strategy. We observed male guppies from high predation, low predation, and intercross lines in their first encounter with a female, then later repeated the encounter to observe differences in mating strategy. We recorded occurrences of three courtship behaviors to determine how they are affected by sexual experience and genetic background. Our results provide evidence that both genetics and plasticity contribute to determining the frequency of these behaviors.  
Session: Is it all in their genes? Genetic Effects
Collateral damage or Shadow of Safety? Effects of conspecific call type on eavesdropper attraction  
Angelina D. Piette1, Alessandro M. Zuccaroli1, Rachel A. Page2, Ximena E. Bernal2,3, Paula A. Trillo1
1Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, PA, USA, 2Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panamá, República de Panamá, 3Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA

Differences in the calls produced by conspecific neighbors can affect their relative attractiveness to eavesdropping predators and parasites. Calling near more attractive neighbors may result in: 1) increased attention from eavesdroppers attracted to the site (Collateral Damage) or 2) reduced risk, as eavesdroppers at the site are drawn to the more attractive call (Shadow of Safety). In túngara frogs, "simple" calls consist of a frequency modulated whine alone, and are less attractive to females and eavesdroppers, whereas "complex" calls include extra harmonically rich syllables and are highly attractive to both. While male túngara typically respond to calling neighbors by increasing call complexity, there can be a delay before all males in an aggregation are producing complex calls. In this study, we used acoustic playbacks in the field to ask: Do males producing simple calls experience reduced or increased eavesdropper risk when signaling next to a neighbor producing complex calls? Studying the risks associated with alternate call variants in differing social contexts will allow us to better understand the forces acting on signalers deciding which call-type to employ.  
Session: Poster Session 2
Green turtles nest survival: quantifying the hidden predation
Luan Amaral Pinheiro de Faria1, Agnaldo Silva Martins1, Josiele Pereira2
1Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Espírito Santo, Brazil, 2Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil

Trindade Island is the largest nesting site for green turtles Chelonia mydas in Brazil and one of the most important in the Atlantic ocean. The terrestrial crab Johngarthia lagostoma forages almost everywhere on the island, including the green turtle nesting beaches. Nothing is known about crab predation on sea turtle eggs at the time of nesting. We obtained unprecedented records of crab predation at sea turtle nests during the breeding seasons of 2017/18 and 2018/19. We analyzed through images and videos the behavior of the predatory species. Not only that, but we observed an average loss of 3 eggs per nest. The period from 0:00 to 3:00 h presented the highest risk of predation. The mortality rate in the egg stage related to neonates was 5% per nest, with an estimated predation impact of 21,600 eggs per season reproductive.
Session: Poster Session 1
The causes and consequences of social interactions
Noa Pinter-Wollman
University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA